My People Are Destroyed for ….

Joseph F. Dumond

Isa 6:9-12 And He said, Go, and tell this people, You hear indeed, but do not understand; and seeing you see, but do not know. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn back, and be healed. Then I said, Lord, how long? And He answered, Until the cities are wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land laid waste, a desolation, and until Jehovah has moved men far away, and the desolation in the midst of the land is great.
Published: Dec 8, 2023

News Letter 5859-039
The 7th Year of the 4th Sabbatical Cycle
The 28th year of the 120th Jubilee Cycle
The 24th day of the 10th month 5859 years after the creation of Adam
The 4th Sabbatical Cycle after the 119th Jubilee Cycle
The Sabbatical Cycle of Sword, Famines, and Pestilence

December 9, 2023

 

Shabbat Shalom to the Royal Family of Yehovah, 

Hos 4:1  Hear the Word of Jehovah, sons of Israel. For Jehovah has a quarrel with the people of the land, because there is no truth, nor mercy, nor knowledge of God in the land.

Hos 4:2  There is lying, and swearing, and killing, and stealing, and the committing of adultery; and blood touches blood.

Hos 4:3  Therefore the land shall mourn, and everyone who dwells in it shall droop, with the beasts of the field and with the birds of the heavens. Yes, the fish of the sea shall also be taken away.

Hos 4:4  Yet let no man strive, nor reprove another. For your people are as those who strive with the priest.

Hos 4:5  And you shall stumble in the day, and the prophet also shall stumble with you in the night, and I will cut off your mother.

Hos 4:6  My people are destroyed for lack of knowledge. Because you have rejected knowledge, I will also reject you from being priest to Me. Since you have forgotten the Law of your God, I will also forget your sons, even I.

Hos 4:7  As they were increased, so they sinned against Me. I will change their glory into shame.

Hos 4:8  They eat up the sin of My people, and they set their heart on their iniquity.

Hos 4:9  And it has become, Like people, like priest; and I will punish them for their ways, and reward them for their doings.

Hos 4:10  For they shall eat and not have enough. They shall fornicate and not increase, because they have stopped taking heed to Jehovah.

Every week, I receive emails or phone calls from people wanting to tell me the latest or newest teaching they have learned. None of them want to teach me Torah or what they learned there. No, they have a new conspiracy teaching they just have to share. Many of you have read my rebuke of this sort of thing in our book, The Abomination That Makes Desolate and because of that do not leave a positive review for the book. Those attending our weekly Shabbat midrash also know I have a zero-tolerance rule against discussing anything and all things conspiratorial. ZERO TOLERANCE. It always leads to division.

Many of you who have read my books, know how, in 2005, I prayed to Yehovah telling Him I would teach the Jubilee teachings if He would keep me from all conspiracy teachings or falling into them. I was fed up with them all even at that time. Yehovah has kept His part of the prayer, and I am keeping my part. We have consistently written about them and against them in the newsletters, every year up until now. Long before the COVID conspiracies ever began.

Pro 6:12  A worthless person, a wicked man walks with a crooked mouth,

Pro 6:13  winking with his eyes, speaking with his feet, teaching with his fingers;

Pro 6:14  perversity is in his heart; he is always planning mischief; he causes fighting.

Pro 6:15  Therefore his calamity shall come suddenly; he is quickly broken, and there is no healing.

Pro 6:16  These six Jehovah hates; yea, seven are hateful to his soul:

Pro 6:17  a proud look, a lying tongue, and hands that shed innocent blood,

Pro 6:18  a heart that plots wicked plans, feet hurrying to run to evil,

Pro 6:19  a false witness who speaks lies, and he who causes fighting among brothers.

Yehovah hates those who lie or spread lies. He even warns us of this in the very last verses of the Bible.

Rev 22:13  I am the Alpha and the Omega, the Beginning and the Ending, the First and the Last.

Rev 22:14  Blessed are they who do His commandments, that their authority will be over the Tree of Life, and they may enter in by the gates into the city.

Rev 22:15  But outside are the dogs, and the sorcerers, and the fornicators, and the murderers, and the idolaters, and everyone who loves and makes a lie.

Yehovah even cursed Miriam with leprosy, which is connected to Lashon Harah or speaking evil, for her gossiping to Aaron about Moses and his new wife. Do you take this sin seriously? Do you wonder why your own lives are plagued with problems you can’t resolve?

I know many of you do not think you are lying and that the information you have is of the utmost truth and extremely urgent to share. Yehovah has warned you, those who keep His Torah, or think they are, to be careful. He warned what would happen to those in the last days who were false witnesses swearing in His Name. The Prophet, the Navi, Zechariah saw flying scrolls which you know are Nuclear missiles and we see these very things flying in Israel every night launched by Hamas. They are not currently armed with Nuclear devices, but soon Iran will begin to do so.

Yehovah says these nuclear flying scrolls will enter the houses of those who swear falsely by His name. I perceive this to be the brethren who KNOW His name.

Zec 5:1  And I again lifted up my eyes and looked. And behold! A flying scroll.

Zec 5:2  And he said to me, What do you see? And I answered, I see a flying scroll; its length is twenty cubits, and its width ten cubits.

Zec 5:3  And he said to me, This is the curse that goes forth over the face of the whole earth; for from now on everyone who steals shall be cut off according to it; and everyone who swears from now on shall be cut off according to it.

Zec 5:4  I will bring it forth, says Jehovah of Hosts; and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him who swears falsely by My name. And it shall remain in the midst of his house, and shall devour it, and its timber and its stones.

Those who know His name are the ones swearing by His name, not those who do not know Him. So think about this. It is the brethren.

I am going to show you where these conspiracies come from: the original conspiracy. I will show you when they started and who started them. Knowing who started them, we can answer why they were started and how they are being repeated down to our time now. This is going to be an interesting walk through history. You may even learn something.

By the time we finish, I hope you will see how there is an anti-authoritarian theme (lie) that propagates them. A blatant disregard for all persons in authority, leadership, sciences and politicians. A similar lie that Eve was told in the garden: that Yehovah lied to her and that she could be just like Him if she ate from the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. Today, that lie is you cannot trust anyone in authority because they are all out to get us and destroy us. Having said that I want you to now consider these facts. Who are some of the world’s smartest people? Then notice who was trying to have all of them exterminated.

Of the 965 individual recipients of the¬†Nobel Prize¬†and the¬†Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences¬†between 1901 and 2023,[1]¬†at least 214 have been¬†Jews¬†or people with at least one Jewish parent, representing 22% of all recipients. Jews comprise only 0.2% of the world’s population, meaning their share of winners is 110 times their proportion of the world’s population.[2][3][4][5]

Jews have been awarded all six of the Nobel Foundation’s awards:[3]

Chemistry: 36 (19% of total)
Economics: 38 (41% of total)
Literature: 16 (13% of total)
Peace: 9 (8% of total)
Physics: 56 (25% of total)
Physiology or Medicine: 59 (26% of total)

Adolf von Baeyer, recipient of the 1905 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, was Jewish on his mother’s side and is considered the first Jewish awardee.[6]

Jewish laureates¬†Elie Wiesel¬†and¬†Imre Kert√©sz¬†survived the¬†extermination camps¬†during¬†the Holocaust.[7]¬†Fran√ßois Englert¬†survived by being hidden in orphanages and children’s homes.[8]¬†Others, such as¬†Hans Bethe,¬†Walter Kohn,¬†Otto Stern,¬†Albert Einstein,¬†Hans Krebs¬†and¬†Martin Karplus¬†fled¬†Nazi Germany¬†to avoid persecution.[9][10][11]¬†Still others, including¬†Rita Levi-Montalcini,¬†Herbert Hauptman,¬†Robert Furchgott,¬†Arthur Kornberg, and¬†Jerome Karle, experienced significant¬†antisemitism¬†in their careers.[10][12]

Arthur Ashkin, a 96-year-old American Jew, was, at the time of his award, the oldest person to receive a Nobel Prize.[13][14]

Having stated this,  the modern conspiracy movement, with few exceptions, comes not from Biblical literalism but from a mindset that is generally anti-science and anti-authority, sprinkled with a few scriptures to sound religious and Holy. It is a rebellious attitude.

When I was growing up we had encyclopedias and libraries full of books in which you could go and study. Today far too many get their education from TikTok, FaceBook, YouTube and other social media platforms where anyone can say anything without being peer-reviewed. Further still, the internet and its younger grandchild, social media, have given everyone in the world a voice. And tens of millions of people are using that voice to proclaim the latest conspiratorial view irregardless of who might get hurt in the process. Why?

False assumptions lead to false conclusions; even if based on a range of texts, they will not lead to biblical truth. We cannot take texts, no matter how many, out of context to make an apologetic case for an idea or doctrine. This leads to faulty doctrine.

I am going to lead you through the history of conspiracy teachings. You will recognize the ones you subscribe to. You will see when they began and how they morphed over the centuries. But there is something I want you to understand. The most important lesson you should come away with having finished reading this article, is that all of these false teachings and propaganda actually led to the deaths of millions of people and the displacement of hundreds of millions more.

In our book The Restoration of All Things, I showed you specifically how Simon Magus took his Babylonian magic and pagan teachings and combined them with the Torah he learned from the Apostles. After just 200 years this would become the basis of the Universal Church and believed as true by all Christians. But the sect of Nazarenes were those who kept the Torah and were not the same as the Christians.

With every denomination and every religion around the world, atheists and Torah observants alike, they all believe in and adhere to some conspiracy teaching or combination of them. They all mix them in with their own faiths to form the basis of what is now their religion. So thorough is the mixing that there is little to distinguish the Torah Observant believer from any other religious groups.

By doing this week’s Newsletter, it is my hope that you will recognize your own pet conspiracy and see it for what it is and then return to studying the Torah and it alone without mixing in any other false teachings.


Reviews

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There are way too many events taking place in the world right now for me to post them all in this newsletter once a week. The world temperatures are shooting through the roof. Climatic disasters are following one after another. Now Hamas entered Israel on Oct 7 and butchered 1400 people, decapitating babies, taking over 200 hostages. All of these things are leading to the 5th curse of famine War and Plague. I am trying to keep you updated so that you are aware. But I am now doing so daily on Telegram.

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It Was A Riddle Not A Command

With Feast of Trumpets Now here you should all have a copy of this book to understand and know the deeper things of this Amazing Feast.

It Was A Riddle Not A Command

Yehshua always spoke in parables publicly.

Matthew 13:34 Jesus spoke all these things to the crowds in parables, and He did not speak to them without a parable,¬†so that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, saying, “I will open my mouth in parables; I will utter things which have been kept secret from the foundation of the world.‚ÄĚ

He did this on purpose so they would not understand.

Matthew 13:10-17 And the disciples said to Him, Why do You speak to them in parables?

He answered and said to them, Because it is given to you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of Heaven, but it is not given to them.

For whoever has, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance. But whoever does not have, from him shall be taken away even that which he has.

Therefore I speak to them in parables, because seeing they see not, and hearing they hear not; nor do they understand. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah which said, “By hearing you shall hear and shall not understand; and seeing you shall see and shall not perceive; for this people’s heart has become gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and they have closed their eyes, lest at any time they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears and should understand with their heart, and should be converted, and I should heal them.”

But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear. For truly I say to you that many prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which you see, and have not seen them; and to hear what you hear, and have not heard them.

Yehshua spoke about the 5 Foolish Virgins in a parable.

Matthew 25:11-13 Afterwards the other virgins came also, saying, Lord, Lord, open to us.

But he answered and said, Truly I say to you, I do not know you.

Therefore watch, for you do not know either the day or the hour in which the Son of Man comes.

The expression ‚ÄúNo Man Knows the Day or the Hour‚ÄĚ is what Yehshua was speaking about in the previous chapter, Matthew 24:36 and here He is using the same expression in this parable again.

This is what most Christians use to dismiss any and all end time prophecies as being false teachings. They do not realize it was a parable meant to say something and hide the truth from those who hearts have grown stupid which is what that word gross means when Isaiah says their hearts have become gross.

Yehshua was telling the foolish they would not and could not know the day or the hour and at the same time telling the wise the precise time He would return on.

The question is which one of the virgins are you?

Order the book and find out which one you are and learn how to change from being a foolish virgin to one of the 5 Wise Virgins.

If you want to understand the Feast of Trumpets…if you want to know about Yehshua birthday, if you want to get the basics understanding of the 10 days of Awe, which we are about publish then you need to read this book as your foundation.

Order the book so you never have to hear the words, I never knew you.

You can also buy the PDF direct from us and start reading it right now. Just click the button below.

Torah Portion

Torah Portions

We read through the entire Torah along with the Prophets and the New Testament, once over the course of 3 1/2 years. Or according to the Sabbatical Cycle which means we read it all twice over a 7-year period. This allows us to cover more in-depth rather than being rushed to cover as much as is covered on an annual basis. We allow all to comment and take part in the discussions.

Septennial Torah Portion

If you go to Torah Portion at our archived section, you can then go to the 7th year which is the 7th year of the Sabbatical Cycle, the one we are in now, as we state at the top of every News Letter. There you can scroll down to the proper date, and see that this Shabbat we could very well be midrashing about:

Deuteronomy 19

1 Chronicles 25-29

1 Timothy 1-3

If you missed last week’s exciting discoveries as we studied that section, you can go and watch past Shabbats on our media section.


Join Our Sabbath Meetings

Join Our Sabbath Meetings

There are many people in need of fellowship and who are sitting at home on the Sabbath with no one to talk to or debate with. I want to encourage all of you to join us on Shabbat, and to invite others to come and join us as well. If the time is not convenient then you can listen to the teaching and the midrash after on our YouTube channel.

What are we doing and why do we teach this way?

We are going to discuss both sides of an issue and then let you choose. It is the work of the Ruach (Spirit) to direct and to teach you.

The medieval commentator Rashi wrote that the Hebrew word for wrestle (avek) implies that Jacob was ‚Äútied‚ÄĚ, for the same word is used to describe knotted fringes in a Jewish prayer shawl, the tzitzityot. Rashi says, ‚Äúthus is the manner of two people who struggle to overthrow each other, that one embraces the other and knots him with his arms‚ÄĚ.

Our intellectual wrestling has been replaced by a different kind of struggle. We are Wrestling with Yehovah as we grapple with His Word. It is an intimate act, symbolizing a relationship in which Yehovah and I and you are bound together. My wrestling is a struggle to discover what Yehovah expects of us, and we are ‚Äútied‚ÄĚ to the One who assists us in that struggle.

Today, many say Israel means ‚ÄúChampion of God‚ÄĚ, or better ‚ÄĒ the ‚ÄúWrestler of God‚ÄĚ.

Our Torah sessions each Shabbat teaches you and encourages you to constantly challenge, question, argue against, as well as view alternative views and explanations of the Word. In other words, we are to ‚Äúwrestle with the Word‚ÄĚ to get to the truth. Jews worldwide believe that you need to wrestle with the Word and constantly challenge Dogma, Theology, and views or else you will never get to the Truth.

We are not like most churches where ‚ÄúThe preacher talks and everyone listens.‚ÄĚ We encourage everyone to participate, to question and to contribute what they know on the subject being discussed. We want you to be a champion wrestler of the Word of Yehovah. We want you to wear the title of Israel, knowing that you not only know but are capable of explaining why you know the Torah to be true with logic and facts.

We have a few rules though. Let others talk and listen. There is no discussion about UFO’s Nephilim, Vaccines or conspiracy-type subjects. We have people from around the world with different world views. Not everyone cares who is the President of any particular country. Treat each other with respect as Fellow wrestlers of the word. Some of our subjects are hard to understand and require you to be mature and if you do not know, then listen to gain knowledge and understanding and hopefully wisdom. The very things you are commanded to ask Yehovah for and He gives to those who ask.

Jas 1:5  But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and with no reproach, and it shall be given to him.

We hope you can invite those who want to keep Torah to come and join us by hitting the link below. It is almost like a Torah teaching fellowship talk show with people from around the world taking part and sharing their insights and understandings.

We start off with some music and then some prayers and it’s as though you were sitting around the kitchen back in Newfoundland having a cup of coffee and all of us enjoying each other’s company. I hope you will grace us with your company someday.

Sabbath services begin at 12:30 PM EDT where we will be doing prayers songs and teaching from this hour.

Shabbat Services will begin at about 1:15 pm Eastern.

On the Holy Day, Shavuot, we will be having two meetings. One at 10 AM Eastern and the afternoon will be 2 PM Eastern. Look forward to seeing you all there.

We look forward to you joining our family and getting to know us as we get to know you.

Joseph Dumond is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.
Topic: Joseph Dumond’s Personal Meeting Room

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From Guilds to Masons to Lodges to Trade Unions

From Guilds to Masons to Lodges to Trade Unions

The name ‚ÄúMason‚ÄĚ comes from its historic roots. In the 16th century, Guilds of English stonemasons were hired to build cathedrals, city walls and churches and would sleep in lodges. As demand, and therefore revenues, decreased, these lodges began to accept stonemasons free of charge. Later, in the 17th century, with religious conflict between Anglicans and Puritans, people grew tired of arguing over religion, believing there to be a common ground for all. Masonry allowed people to come together, but did not allow them to discuss religion or politics.

History of the Guild

A guild (/ɡɪld/ GILD) is an association of artisans and merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular territory. The earliest types of guild formed as organizations of tradespeople belonging to a professional association. They sometimes depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other ruler to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials, but most were regulated by the local government. Guild members found guilty of cheating the public would be fined or banned from the guild. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places.

Typically the key “privilege” was that only guild members were allowed to sell their goods or practice their skill within the city. There might be controls on minimum or maximum prices, hours of trading, numbers of apprentices, and many other things. Critics argued that these rules reduced¬†free competition, but defenders maintained that they protected professional standards.[1]

History of guilds[edit]
Early guild-like associations[edit]
Main article: Collegium (ancient Rome)

Naram-Sin of Akkad (c.‚ÄČ2254‚Äď2218 BC), grandson of Sargon of Akkad who had unified Sumeria and Assyria into the Akkadian Empire, promulgated common Mesopotamian standards for length, area, volume, weight, time, and shekels, which were used by artisan guilds in each city.[3] Code of Hammurabi Law 234 (c.‚ÄČ1755‚Äď1750 BC) stipulated a 2-shekel wage for each 60-gur (300-bushel) vessel constructed in an employment contract between a shipbuilder and a ship-owner.[4][5][6] Law 275 stipulated a ferry rate of 3-gerah per day on a charter party between a ship charterer and a shipmaster. Law 276 stipulated a 21‚ĀĄ2-gerah per day freight rate on a contract of affreightment between a charterer and shipmaster, while Law 277 stipulated a 1‚ĀĄ6-shekel per day freight rate for a 60-gur vessel.[7][8][6]

A type of guild was known in¬†Roman¬†times. Known as¬†collegium,¬†collegia¬†or¬†corpus, these were organised groups of merchants who specialised in a particular craft and whose membership of the group was voluntary. One such example is the¬†corpus naviculariorum, a collegium of¬†merchant mariners¬†based at Rome’s¬†La Ostia port. The Roman guilds failed to survive the¬†collapse¬†of the¬†Roman Empire.[9]

A¬†collegium¬†was any association or¬†corporation¬†that acted as a¬†legal entity. In 1816, an archeological excavation in¬†Minya, Egypt¬†produced a¬†Nerva‚ÄďAntonine dynasty-era (second-century AD) clay tablet from the ruins of the¬†Temple of Antinous¬†in¬†Antino√∂polis,¬†Aegyptus¬†that¬†prescribed the rules¬†and¬†membership dues¬†of a¬†burial society¬†collegium¬†established in¬†Lanuvium,¬†Italia¬†in approximately 133 AD.[10]¬†Following the passage of the¬†Lex Julia¬†in 45 BC, and its reaffirmation during the reign of¬†Caesar Augustus¬†(27 BC‚Äď14 AD),¬†collegia¬†required the approval of the¬†Roman Senate¬†or the¬†emperor¬†in order to be¬†authorized as legal bodies.[11]¬†Ruins at¬†Lambaesis¬†date the formation of burial societies among Roman soldiers and¬†mariners¬†to the reign of¬†Septimius Severus¬†(193‚Äď211) in 198 AD.[12]¬†In September 2011, archeological investigations done at the site of an artificial harbor in Rome, the¬†Portus, revealed inscriptions in a shipyard constructed during the reign of¬†Trajan¬†(98‚Äď117) indicating the existence of a shipbuilders guild.[13]¬†Collegia¬†also included¬†fraternities¬†of¬†priests¬†overseeing¬†sacrifices, practicing¬†augury, keeping religious texts, arranging¬†festivals, and maintaining specific¬†religious cults.[14]

Post-classical guild[edit]

There were several types of guilds, including the two main categories of merchant guilds and craft guilds[15][16] but also the frith guild and religious guild.[17] Guilds arose beginning in the High Middle Ages as craftsmen united to protect their common interests. In the German city of Augsburg craft guilds are mentioned in the Towncharter of 1156.[18]

The continental system of guilds and merchants arrived in¬†England¬†after the¬†Norman Conquest, with incorporated societies of merchants in each town or city holding exclusive rights of doing business there. In many cases they became the governing body of a town. For example,¬†London’s Guildhall¬†became the seat of the¬†Court of Common Council¬†of the City of London Corporation, the world’s oldest continuously elected local government,[19]¬†whose members to this day must be Freemen of the city.[20]¬†The¬†Freedom of the City, effective from the Middle Ages until 1835, gave the right to trade, and was only bestowed upon members of a Guild or Livery.[21]

Early¬†egalitarian communities¬†called “guilds”[22]¬†were denounced by Catholic clergy for their “conjurations” ‚ÄĒ the binding oaths sworn among the members to support one another in adversity, kill specific enemies, and back one another in feuds or in business ventures. The occasion for these oaths were drunken banquets held on December 26. In 858,¬†West Francian¬†Bishop¬†Hincmar¬†sought vainly to Christianise the guilds.[23]

In the Early Middle Ages, most of the Roman craft organisations, originally formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and perhaps glassmakers, mostly the people that had local skills.

Conclusion

What you have just read is the history of how people of the same skill set would join together to train and educate their association and take advantage of that association to promote themselves to the community. Today, in the 21st century, we call them Trade Unions. I started my career by learning to be a pipe fitter in the Pipe Fitters Union. It also included the Welders. Later, I changed carriers and became a heavy equipment operator, learning how to operate side-booms, excavators, dozers and backhoes.. I had to join the Operating Engineers Union to practice my trade and to get the top-paying wages. You could also call it the Operating Guild. This year, the Writers Guild in Hollywood went on strike.  Masons today are known as bricklayers and stone cutters. Each union or guild has special tools needed to perform that trade.

I am presenting the facts to you so you can separate out the myths and the lies. This is important in order to understand where the lies come from and why. It has to do with power. Some of these guilds were for the merchants and, in the middle ages, were made up of Jewish traders who would become very rich. They would be employed by the head of state to help enrich the nation they were in. Today we have conventions of similar type of people come together to share their trade secrets or to learn from others better methods. Nothing has changed. We just call it by a different name.

Conspiracy Theory

 

Conspiracy Theory

A conspiracy theory is an explanation for an event or situation that asserts the existence of a conspiracy by powerful and sinister groups, often political in motivation,[3][4][5] when other explanations are more probable.[3][6][7] The term generally has a negative connotation, implying that the appeal of a conspiracy theory is based in prejudice, emotional conviction, or insufficient evidence.[8] A conspiracy theory is distinct from a conspiracy; it refers to a hypothesized conspiracy with specific characteristics, including but not limited to opposition to the mainstream consensus among those who are qualified to evaluate its accuracy, such as scientists or historians.[9][10][11]

Conspiracy theories are generally designed to resist¬†falsification¬†and are reinforced by¬†circular reasoning: both evidence against the conspiracy¬†and¬†absence of evidence for it are misinterpreted as evidence of its truth,[8][12]¬†whereby the conspiracy becomes a matter of faith rather than something that can be proven or disproven.[1][13]¬†Studies have linked belief in conspiracy theories to distrust of authority and political¬†cynicism.[14][15][16]¬†Some researchers suggest that¬†conspiracist ideation‚ÄĒbelief in conspiracy theories‚ÄĒmay be psychologically harmful or pathological,[17][18]¬†and that it is correlated with lower¬†analytical thinking, low¬†intelligence,¬†psychological projection,¬†paranoia, and¬†Machiavellianism.[19]¬†Psychologists usually attribute belief in conspiracy theories to a number of psychopathological conditions such as¬†paranoia,¬†schizotypy,¬†narcissism, and¬†insecure attachment,[9]¬†or to a form of¬†cognitive bias¬†called “illusory pattern perception”.[20][21]¬†However, a 2020 review article found that most¬†cognitive scientists¬†view conspiracy theorizing as typically nonpathological, given that unfounded belief in conspiracy is common across cultures both historical and contemporary, and may arise from innate human tendencies towards gossip, group cohesion, and religion.[9]

Historically, conspiracy theories have been closely linked to prejudice, propaganda, witch hunts, wars, and genocides.[22][23][24][25] They are often strongly believed by the perpetrators of terrorist attacks, and were used as justification by Timothy McVeigh and Anders Breivik, as well as by governments such as Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union,[22] and Turkey.[26] AIDS denialism by the government of South Africa, motivated by conspiracy theories, caused an estimated 330,000 deaths from AIDS,[27][28][29] QAnon and denialism about the 2020 United States presidential election results led to the January 6 United States Capitol attack,[30][31][32] while belief in conspiracy theories about genetically modified foods led the government of Zambia to reject food aid during a famine,[23] at a time when three million people in the country were suffering from hunger.[33] Conspiracy theories are a significant obstacle to improvements in public health,[23][34] encouraging opposition to vaccination and water fluoridation among others, and have been linked to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases.[23][27][34][35] Other effects of conspiracy theories include reduced trust in scientific evidence,[23][36] radicalization and ideological reinforcement of extremist groups,[22][37] and negative consequences for the economy.[22]

Conspiracy theories once limited to fringe audiences have become commonplace in mass media, the internet, and social media,[9] emerging as a cultural phenomenon of the late 20th and early 21st centuries.[38][39][40][41] They are widespread around the world and are often commonly believed, some even held by the majority of the population.[42][43][44] Interventions to reduce the occurrence of conspiracy beliefs include maintaining an open society and improving the analytical thinking skills of the general public.[42][43]

History of Freemasonry & The Anti Masonry Sects

History of Freemasonry & The Anti Masonry Sects

Since the middle of the 19th century, Masonic historians have sought the origins of the movement in a series of similar documents known as the Old Charges, dating from the Regius Poem in about 1425[43] to the beginning of the 18th century. Alluding to the membership of a lodge of operative masons, they relate it to a mythologised history of the craft, the duties of its grades, and the manner in which oaths of fidelity are to be taken on joining.[44] The 15th century also sees the first evidence of ceremonial regalia.[45]

There is no clear mechanism by which these local trade organisations became today’s Masonic Lodges. The earliest rituals and passwords known, from operative lodges around the turn of the 17th‚Äď18th centuries, show continuity with the rituals developed in the later 18th century by accepted or speculative Masons, as those members who did not practice the physical craft gradually came to be known.[46]¬†The minutes of the¬†Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary’s Chapel) No. 1¬†in Scotland show a continuity from an operative lodge in 1598 to a modern speculative Lodge.[47]¬†It is reputed to be the oldest Masonic Lodge in the world.[48]


Anti-Masonry

Anti-Masonry¬†(alternatively called¬†Anti-Freemasonry) has been defined as “opposition to Freemasonry”,[124][125]¬†but there is no homogeneous anti-Masonic movement. Anti-Masonry consists of widely differing criticisms from diverse (and often incompatible) groups who are hostile to Freemasonry in some form. Critics have included religious groups, political groups, and¬†conspiracy theorists, in particular, those espousing¬†Masonic conspiracy theories¬†or the¬†Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory. Certain prominent Anti-Masons, such as¬†Nesta Helen Webster¬†(1876‚Äď1960), have exclusively criticized “Continental Masonry” while considering “Regular Masonry” an honourable association.[126]

There have been many disclosures and exposés dating as far back as the 18th century. These often lack context,[127] may be outdated for various reasons,[128] or could be outright hoaxes on the part of the author, as in the case of the Taxil hoax.[129]

These hoaxes and expos√©s have often become the basis for criticism of Masonry, often religious or political in nature or are based on suspicion of corrupt conspiracy of some form. The political opposition that arose after the American “Morgan Affair” in 1826 gave rise to the term¬†Anti-Masonry, which is still in use in America today, both by Masons in referring to their critics and as a self-descriptor by the critics themselves.[130]

Religious opposition[edit]

Freemasonry has attracted criticism from theocratic states and organised religions for supposed competition with religion or supposed heterodoxy within the fraternity itself and has long been the target of conspiracy theories, which assert Freemasonry to be an occult and evil power.[131]

Christianity and Freemasonry[edit]

Main article: Opposition to Freemasonry within Christianity
Although members of various faiths cite objections, certain Christian¬†denominations¬†have had high-profile negative attitudes to Masonry, banning or discouraging their members from being Freemasons. The denomination with the longest history of objection to Freemasonry is the¬†Catholic Church. The objections raised by the Catholic Church are based on the allegation that Masonry teaches a naturalistic¬†deistic¬†religion which is in conflict with Church¬†doctrine.[132]¬†A number of Papal pronouncements have been issued against Freemasonry. The first was¬†Pope Clement XII’s¬†In eminenti apostolatus,¬†28 April 1738; the most recent was¬†Pope Leo XIII’s¬†Ab apostolici,¬†15 October 1890.[133]¬†Other Vatican documents include the following:¬†Providas Romanorum¬†(Benedict XIV, 18 May 1751);¬†Ecclesiam a Iesu¬†(Pius VII, 13 September 1821);¬†Quo Graviora¬†(Leo XII, 15 March 1825);¬†Traditi Humilitati;¬†Ad Gravissimas¬†(Gregory XVI, 31 August 1843);[134]¬†Qui pluribus¬†(Pius IX, 9 November 1846);¬†Quibus Quantisque Malis¬†(20 April 1849);[135]¬†Quanta cura¬†(8 Decembre 1864); bull¬†Multiplices inter¬†(25 September 1865);¬†Apostolicae Sedis¬†(12 October 1869);[136]¬†Etsi multa¬†(21 November 1873, in which the Pope defined Freemasonry as the “Synagogue¬†of¬†Satan);¬†Diuturnum Illud¬†(Pope Leo XIII, 29 June 1881);¬†Etsi Nos¬†(15 February 1882);¬†Humanum Genus¬†(20 March 1884);¬†Officio Sanctissimo¬†(22 December 1887);¬†Rerum novarum¬†(15 May 1891);¬†Inimica Vis¬†(8 December 1892);¬†Annum ingressi¬†(18 March 1902).

The 1917 Code of Canon Law explicitly declared that joining Freemasonry entailed automatic excommunication and banned books favouring Freemasonry.[137]

In 1983, the Church issued a new code of¬†canon law. Unlike its predecessor, the¬†1983 Code of Canon Law¬†did not explicitly name Masonic orders among the¬†secret societies¬†it condemns. It states: “A person who joins an association which plots against the Church is to be punished with a just penalty; one who promotes or takes office in such an association is to be punished with an¬†interdict.” This named omission of Masonic orders caused both Catholics and Freemasons to believe that the ban on Catholics becoming Freemasons may have been lifted, especially after the perceived liberalisation of¬†Vatican II.[138]¬†However, the matter was clarified when Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later¬†Pope Benedict XVI),¬†as the Prefect¬†of the¬†Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, issued a¬†Declaration on Masonic Associations, which states: “…¬†the Church’s negative judgment in regard to Masonic association remains unchanged since their principles have always been considered irreconcilable with the doctrine of the Church and therefore membership in them remains forbidden. The faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive¬†Holy Communion.”[139]¬†In 2023,¬†Pope Francis¬†reaffirmed the ban on catholics becoming Freemasons stating the ¬ę[…] irreconcilability between Catholic doctrine and Freemasonry […]¬Ľ[140]¬†in response to¬†Julito Cortes,¬†Bishop of¬†Dumanguete, who stated concerns over the growing number of Freemasons in the¬†Phillipines.[141]¬†The renewed ban cited both the¬†1983 Code of Canon Law, as well as the¬†Guidelines¬†made by a Bishops Conference in 2003.[141][142]¬†For its part, Freemasonry has never objected to Catholics joining their fraternity. Those Grand Lodges in amity with the United Grand Lodge of England deny the Church’s claims, stating that “Freemasonry does not seek to replace a Mason’s religion or provide a substitute for it.”[7]

In contrast to Catholic allegations of rationalism and naturalism, Protestant objections are more likely to be based on allegations of mysticism, occultism, and even Satanism.[143] Masonic scholar Albert Pike is often quoted (in some cases misquoted) by Protestant anti-Masons as an authority for the position of Masonry on these issues.[144] However, Pike, although undoubtedly learned, was not a spokesman for Freemasonry and was also controversial among Freemasons in general. His writings represented his personal opinion only, and furthermore, an opinion grounded in the attitudes and understandings of late 19th century Southern Freemasonry of the US. Notably, his book carries in the preface a form of disclaimer from his own Grand Lodge. No one voice has ever spoken for the whole of Freemasonry.[145]

Free Methodist Church¬†founder¬†B.T. Roberts¬†was a vocal opponent of Freemasonry in the mid 19th century. Roberts opposed the society on moral grounds and stated, “The god of the lodge is not the God of the Bible.” Roberts believed Freemasonry was a “mystery” or “alternate” religion and encouraged his church not to support ministers who were Freemasons. Freedom from secret societies is one of the “frees” upon which the Free Methodist Church was founded.[146]

Since the founding of Freemasonry, many Bishops of the Church of England have been Freemasons, including Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher.[147] In the past, few members of the Church of England would have seen any incongruity in concurrently adhering to Anglican Christianity and practising Freemasonry. In recent decades, however, reservations about Freemasonry have increased within Anglicanism, perhaps due to the increasing prominence of the evangelical wing of the church. The former archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Rowan Williams, appeared to harbour some reservations about Masonic ritual, while being anxious to avoid causing offence to Freemasons inside and outside the Church of England. In 2003 he felt it necessary to apologise to British Freemasons after he said that their beliefs were incompatible with Christianity and that he had barred the appointment of Freemasons to senior posts in his diocese when he was Bishop of Monmouth.[148]

In 1933, the¬†Orthodox¬†Church of Greece¬†officially declared that being a Freemason constitutes an act of¬†apostasy¬†and thus, until he repents, the person involved with Freemasonry cannot partake of the¬†Eucharist. This has been generally affirmed throughout the whole Eastern Orthodox Church. The Orthodox critique of Freemasonry agrees with both the Catholic and Protestant versions: “Freemasonry cannot be at all compatible with Christianity as far as it is a secret organisation, acting and teaching in mystery and secret and deifying rationalism.”[149]

Regular Freemasonry has traditionally not responded to these claims, beyond the often-repeated statement that Freemasonry explicitly adheres to the principle that “Freemasonry is not a religion, nor a substitute for religion. There is no separate ‘Masonic deity,’ and there is no separate proper name for a deity in Freemasonry.”[150]

Christian men, who were discouraged from joining the Freemasons by their Churches or who wanted a more religiocentric society, joined similar fraternal organisations, such as the¬†Knights of Columbus¬†and¬†Knights of Peter Claver¬†for Catholics, and the¬†Loyal Orange Institution¬†for Protestants,[151]¬†although these fraternal organisations have been “organized in part on the style of and use many symbols of Freemasonry”.[151]

There are some elements of Freemasonry within the temple rituals of Mormonism.

Islam and Freemasonry[edit]

Many¬†Islamic¬†anti-Masonic arguments are closely tied to¬†anti-Zionism, though other criticisms are made, such as linking Freemasonry to¬†Al-Masih ad-Dajjal¬†(the false Messiah in Islamic Scripture).[152][153]¬†Syrian-Egyptian¬†Islamic theologian¬†MŇęhammńĀd Rashńęd Rid√ʬ†(1865‚Äď1935) played the crucial role in leading the opposition to Freemasonry across the¬†Islamic world¬†during the early twentieth century.[154]¬†Influenced by Rida, Islamic anti-Masons argue that Freemasonry promotes the interests of the Jews around the world and that one of its aims is to destroy the¬†Al-Aqsa Mosque compound¬†in order to rebuild the¬†Temple of Solomon¬†in¬†Jerusalem.[155]¬†Through his popular¬†pan-Islamic¬†journal¬†Al-Manar, Rashid Rida spread anti-Masonic ideas which would directly influence the¬†Muslim Brotherhood¬†and subsequent Islamist movements, such as¬†Hamas.[156]¬†In article 28 of its Covenant,¬†Hamas¬†states that Freemasonry,¬†Rotary, and other similar groups “work in the interest of Zionism and according to its instructions ...”[157]

Several predominantly Muslim countries have banned Freemasonry within their borders, while others have not. Turkey and Morocco have established Grand Lodges,[158] while in countries such as Malaysia[159][160] and Lebanon,[161] there are District Grand Lodges operating under a warrant from an established Grand Lodge. In 1972, in Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, then Prime Minister of Pakistan, placed a ban on Freemasonry. Lodge buildings were confiscated by the government.[162]

Masonic lodges existed in¬†Iraq¬†as early as 1917, when the first lodge under the¬†United Grand Lodge of England¬†(UGLE) was opened. Nine lodges under UGLE existed by the 1950s, and a Scottish lodge was formed in 1923. However, the position changed following the revolution, and all lodges were forced to close in 1965.[163]¬†This position was later reinforced under¬†Saddam Hussein; the death penalty was “prescribed” for those who “promote or acclaim Zionist principles, including freemasonry, or who associate [themselves] with Zionist organisations.”[152]

The Father of Modern Conspiracy Theories.

Barruel’s Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism

Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism¬†(French:¬†M√©moires pour servir √† l‚Äôhistoire du Jacobinisme) is a book by Abb√©¬†Augustin Barruel, a French¬†Jesuit¬†priest. It was written and published in French in 1797‚Äď98, and translated into English in 1799.

In the book, Barruel claims that the French Revolution was the result of a deliberate conspiracy or plot to overthrow the throne, altar and aristocratic society in Europe. The plot was allegedly hatched by a coalition of philosophes, Freemasons and the Order of the Illuminati. The conspirators created a system that was inherited by the Jacobins who operated it to its greatest potential. The Memoirs purports to expose the Revolution as the culmination of a long history of subversion. Barruel was not the first to make these charges but he was the first to present them in a fully developed historical context and his evidence was on a quite unprecedented scale. Barruel wrote each of the first three volumes of the book as separate discussions of those who contributed to the conspiracy. The fourth volume is an attempt to unite them all in a description of the Jacobins in the French Revolution. Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism is representative of the criticism of the Enlightenment that spread throughout Europe during the Revolutionary period.

Barruel’s¬†Memoirs¬†are considered to be one of the founding documents of the right-wing interpretation of the French Revolution.[1]¬†They became popular immediately after they were published and were read and commented on by most of the important literary and political journals of the day.[2]¬†The four volumes of the text were published in a number of languages and created a debate about the role of the¬†philosophes, their ideas, and the Enlightenment in the French Revolution. They remained in print well into the 20th century and contributed to the historical interpretation of the late 18th century in France. The success of Barruel’s work is testimony to the anti-philosophical discourse that spread in the aftermath of the revolution. Barruel left behind a construction of the Enlightenment that was destined to influence subsequent interpretations. He wound accusations tightly around his foes and tied them into positions from which they could not escape.[3]¬†The text created a link between the Enlightenment and the Revolution and this connection remains a topic of historical debate.

Outline of the work[edit]

In his “Preliminary Discourse”, Barruel defines the three forms of conspiracy as the “conspiracy of impiety” against God and Christianity, the “conspiracy of rebellion” against kings and monarchs, and “the conspiracy of anarchy” against society in general.[9]¬†He sees the end of the 18th century as “one continuous chain of cunning, art, and seduction”[10]¬†intended to bring about the “overthrow of the altar, the ruin of the throne, and the dissolution of all civil society”.[11]

The first volume examines the anti-Christian conspiracy that was begun by¬†Voltaire¬†in 1728 when Barruel claimed that¬†Voltaire¬†“consecrated his life to the annihilation of Christianity”.[12]¬†Barruel returned to the principal texts of the Enlightenment and found reasons to draw close links between the philosophism of the time and the anti-Christian campaigns of the Revolution.[13]¬†Here he found that the philosophes had created an age of pretend philosophy which they used in their battle with Christianity. Their commitment to liberty and equality were really commitments of “pride and revolt”.[14]¬†Barruel claimed that the proponents of the Enlightenment led people into illusion and error and refers to the philosophes as “Writers of this species, so far from enlightening the people, only contribute to lead them into the path of error”.[15]¬†He alleged that Voltaire,¬†Jean le Rond d‚ÄôAlembert,¬†Denis Diderot, and¬†Frederick II, the King of Prussia, planned the course of events that led to the French Revolution. They began with an attack on the Church where a “subterranean warfare of illusion, error, and darkness waged by the Sect”[16]¬†attempted to destroy Christianity. The influence of the philosophes could not be underrated according to Barruel. They created the intellectual framework that put the conspiracy in motion and controlled the ideology of the secret societies. Barruel appears to have read the work of the philosophes and his direct and extensive quotes show a deep knowledge of their beliefs. This is unusual among the enemies of the Enlightenment, who rarely distracted themselves by reading the works and authors they were attacking.[17]¬†Barruel believed the philosophes were important as the original villains that seduced the population and made Enlightenment, and subsequently revolutionary, ideals favorable.

The second volume focuses on the anti-monarchical conspiracy that was led by¬†Jean Jacques Rousseau¬†and¬†Baron de Montesquieu. These conspirators sought to destroy the established monarchies under the guise of “Independence and Liberty”.[18]¬†Barruel analyses and criticizes Montesquieu’s¬†The Spirit of Laws¬†and¬†Rousseau’s¬†Social Contract¬†because the application of the ideas expressed in these books had “given birth to that disquieted spirit which fought to investigate the rights of sovereignty, the extent of their authority, the pretended rights of the free man, and without which every subject is branded for a slave – and every king a despot”.[19]¬†He believed that the influence of these two writers was a necessary factor in the enactment of the French Revolution. He agreed with the revolutionaries as they themselves placed the remains of Voltaire and Rousseau in the Pantheon to pay homage to the “fathers of the revolution”. Barruel believed that the philosophes had created a lasting influence as their spirit survived through their writings and continued to promote anti-monarchical feelings within the Jacobins and the revolutionaries. The destruction of monarchies in Europe led to the triumph of the Jacobins as they trampled “underfoot the altars and the thrones in the name of that equality and that liberty which summon the peoples to the disasters of revolution and the horrors of anarchy”.[20]¬†Barruel equated the rejection of monarchy with a rejection of any type of order and government. As a result, the principles of equality and liberty and their attacks against the monarchy were attacks against all governments and¬†civil society. He presented a choice to his readers between monarchy and the “reign of anarchy and absolute independence”.[21]

Barruel’s third volume addresses the antisocial conspiracy that was the objective of the¬†Freemasons¬†and the Order of the¬†Illuminati. The philosophes and their attacks against the church and the throne paved the way for the conspiracy that was led by these secret societies. These groups were believed to have constituted a single sect that numbered over 300,000 members who were “all zealous for the Revolution, and all ready to rise at the first signal and to impart the shock to all others classes of the people”.[22]¬†Barruel surveyed the history of Masonry and maintained that its higher mysteries had always been of an atheist and republican cast.[23]¬†He believed the Freemasons kept their words and aims secret for many years but on August 12, 1792, two days after the fall of the French monarchy, they ran through the streets openly announcing their secrets. The secret words were “Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity” and the secret aim was the overthrow of the French monarchy and the establishment of the republic.[24]¬†Barruel claimed he heard them speak these words in France but that in other countries the Masons still kept their secrets. A division of the group into numerous lodges ensured that if the secrets of one lodge were discovered, the rest would remain hidden. He believed that it was his job to warn all governments and people of the goals of the Freemasons. Barruel described in detail how this system worked in the case of the Illuminati. Even after Johann¬†Adam Weishaupt, the leader of the sect, was discovered and tried in court, the proceedings could not uncover the universal influence of the Illuminati and no steps were taken against the group.[25]¬†The majority of the secret societies could always survive and carry on their activities because of the organization of the group. The Illuminati, as a whole, functioned to radicalize the movement against the throne and altar and influenced more members of the population to subscribe to their hidden principles.[26]¬†They refined the secret structure that had been provided by the Masons basic framework.

For Barruel, the final designs of the coalition of the philosophes, the Freemasons and the Illuminati were achieved by the Jacobins. These clubs were formed by “the adepts of impiety, the adepts of rebellion, and the adepts of anarchy”[27]¬†working together to implement their radical agenda. Their guiding philosophy and actions were the culmination of the conspiracy, as they directly wanted to end the monarchy and the church. Barruel believed that the only difference between the Jacobins and their precursors was that the Jacobins actually brought down the church and the throne and were able to institute their basic beliefs and goals, while their precursors only desired to do these things without much success.[28]

The Father of Modern Conspiracy Theories.

Barruel’s polemic is an important source for the understanding of the mentality of the opponents of the French Revolution and their understanding of the ideological origins of the Revolution. Furthermore, Barruel is seen as the father of modern¬†conspiracy theory. The¬†Memoirs¬†contain all of the elements that continue to characterize conspiracy narratives today, including the argument that a hidden group is orchestrating world events behind the scenes, and an attempt to construct a direct lineage from the past to the present.[63]¬†Barruel presents a thorough application of conspiracy theory methodology. As a result, he has had a lasting influence on following generations. Various 20th Century works attacking Communism and the Russian Revolution can be seen to follow his model.

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

The Protocols of the Elders of Zion¬†(Russian:¬†–ü—Ä–ĺ—ā–ĺ–ļ–ĺ–Ľ—č —Ā–ł–ĺ–Ĺ—Ā–ļ–ł—Ö –ľ—É–ī—Ä–Ķ—Ü–ĺ–≤), or¬†The Protocols of the Meetings of the Learned Elders of Zion¬†(–ü—Ä–ĺ—ā–ĺ–ļ–ĺ–Ľ—č —Ā–ĺ–Ī—Ä–į–Ĺ–ł–Ļ —É—á–Ķ–Ĺ—č—Ö —Ā–ł–ĺ–Ĺ—Ā–ļ–ł—Ö –ľ—É–ī—Ä–Ķ—Ü–ĺ–≤), is a¬†fabricated text¬†purporting to detail a¬†Jewish plot for global domination. Largely plagiarized from several earlier sources, it was first published in¬†Imperial Russia¬†in 1903, translated into multiple languages, and disseminated internationally in the early part of the 20th century. It played a key part in popularizing belief in an¬†international Jewish conspiracy.

Beginning in 1933, distillations of the work were assigned by some German teachers, as if they were factual, to be read by German schoolchildren throughout¬†Nazi Germany,[1]¬†although the text had been exposed as fraudulent by the British newspaper¬†The Times¬†in 1921 and by the German newspaper¬†Frankfurter Zeitung¬†in 1924. Today, it remains widely available in numerous languages, in print and on the Internet, and continues to be presented by antisemitic groups as a genuine document. It has been described as “probably the most influential work of antisemitism ever written” since it emerged from Russia shortly before¬†World War I.[2]

Creation

The¬†Protocols¬†is a fabricated document purporting to be factual. Textual evidence shows that it could not have been produced prior to 1901: the document alludes to the assassinations of¬†Umberto I¬†and¬†William McKinley, for example, as though these events were plotted out in advance.[3]¬†The title of¬†Sergei Nilus’ widely distributed first edition contains the dates “1902‚Äď1903”, and it is likely that the document was actually written at this time in Russia.[4]¬†Cesare G. De Michelis¬†argues that it was manufactured in the months after a Russian Zionist congress in September 1902, and that it was originally a parody of Jewish idealism meant for internal circulation among antisemites until it was decided to clean it up and publish it as if it were real. Self-contradictions in various testimonies show that the individuals involved‚ÄĒincluding the text’s initial publisher,¬†Pavel Krushevan‚ÄĒdeliberately obscured the origins of the text and lied about it in the decades afterwards.[5]

If the placement of the forgery in 1902‚Äď1903 Russia is correct, then it was written at the beginning of a series of¬†anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire, in which thousands of Jews were killed or fled the country. Many of the people whom De Michelis suspects of involvement in the forgery were directly responsible for inciting the pogroms.[6]

Political conspiracy background

Towards the end of the 18th century, following the¬†Partitions of Poland, the¬†Russian Empire¬†conquered the world’s largest Jewish population. The Jews lived in¬†shtetls¬†in the West of the Empire, in the¬†Pale of Settlement¬†and until the 1840s, local Jewish affairs were organised through the¬†qahal, the semi-autonomous Jewish local government, including for purposes of taxation and conscription into the¬†Imperial Russian Army. Following the ascent of¬†liberalism¬†in Europe and among the¬†intelligentsia¬†in Russia, the Tsarist civil service became more hardline in its reactionary policies, upholding¬†Tsar Nicholas I’s slogan of¬†Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality, whereby non-Orthodox and non-Russian subjects, including Jews, Catholics, and Protestants, were viewed as a subversive¬†fifth column¬†who needed to be forcibly converted and assimilated; but even Jews like the composer¬†Maximilian Steinberg¬†who attempted to¬†assimilate¬†by converting to Orthodoxy were still regarded with suspicion as potential “infiltrators” supposedly trying to “take over society”, while Jews who remained attached to their traditional religion and culture were resented as undesirable aliens.

Resentment towards Jews, for the aforementioned reasons, existed in Russian society, but the idea of a¬†Protocols-esque¬†international Jewish conspiracy¬†for world domination was minted in the 1860s.¬†Jacob Brafman, a Lithuanian Jew from¬†Minsk, had a falling out with agents of the local¬†qahal¬†and consequently converted to the¬†Russian Orthodox Church¬†and authored polemics against the¬†Talmud¬†and the¬†qahal.[7]¬†Brafman claimed in his books¬†The Local and Universal Jewish Brotherhoods¬†(1868) and¬†The Book of the Kahal¬†(1869), published in¬†Vilna, that the¬†qahal¬†continued to exist in secret and that it had as its principal aim undermining Orthodox Christian entrepreneurs, taking over their property and ultimately seizing political power. He also claimed that it was an international conspiratorial network, under the central control of the¬†Alliance Isra√©lite Universelle, which was based in Paris and then under the leadership of¬†Adolphe Cr√©mieux, a prominent¬†freemason.[7]¬†The Vilna Talmudist,¬†Jacob Barit, attempted to refute Brafman’s claim.

The impact of Brafman’s work took on an international aspect when it was translated into English, French, German and other languages. The image of the “qahal” as a secret international Jewish shadow government working as a¬†state within a state¬†was picked up by anti-Jewish publications in Russia and was taken seriously by some Russian officials such as P. A. Cherevin and¬†Nikolay Pavlovich Ignatyev¬†who in the 1880s urged governors-general of provinces to seek out the supposed¬†qahal. This was around the time of the¬†Nihilist¬†Narodnaya Volya¬†assassination of Tsar¬†Alexander II of Russia¬†by bombing and the subsequent¬†pogroms. In France, it was translated by Monsignor¬†Ernest Jouin¬†in 1925, who later supported the Protocols. In 1928,¬†Siegfried Passarge, a¬†Far Right¬†geographer who later gave his support to the¬†Nazis, translated it into German.

Aside from Brafman, there were other early writings which posited a similar concept to the¬†Protocols. This includes¬†The Conquest of the World by the Jews¬†(1878),[8]¬†published in¬†Basel¬†and authored by Osman Bey (born¬†Frederick van Millingen). Millingen was a British subject and son of English physician¬†Julius Michael Millingen, but served as an officer in the¬†army of the Ottoman Empire¬†where he was born. He converted to¬†Islam, but later became a Russian Orthodox Christian. Bey’s work was followed up by¬†Hippolytus Lutostansky’s¬†The Talmud and the Jews¬†(1879) which claimed that Jews wanted to divide Russia among themselves.[9]

Judeo-Masonic Conspiracy Theory

Judeo-Masonic Conspiracy Theory

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judeo-Masonic_conspiracy_theory

The Judeo-Masonic conspiracy is an antisemitic and anti-Masonic conspiracy theory[2] involving an alleged secret coalition of Jews and Freemasons. These theories were popular on the far-right, particularly in France,[3] Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Russia, Serbia, Eastern Europe, and Japan, with similar allegations still being published.


The Protocols of the Elders of Zion

The Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theory merges two older strains of conspiracy claims: Masonic conspiracy theories claims and antisemitic conspiracy claims. It was heavily influenced by publication of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,[3] a fabricated document that appeared in the Russian Empire purporting to be an exposé of a worldwide Jewish conspiracy. The Protocols claim that the Jews had infiltrated Freemasonry and were using the fraternity to further their aims. Adherents of the Judeo-Masonic conspiracy took the claim made by the Protocols to extremes and claimed that the leaders of Freemasonry and the leaders of the Jewish plot were one and the same.

An example was the Spanish Roman Catholic priest¬†Juan Tusquets Terrats, whose¬†Or√≠genes de la revoluci√≥n espa√Īola¬†and other works built on the¬†Protocols, which he translated, to claim that Jews used Freemasons and¬†communists¬†to undermine¬†Christian¬†and Spanish civilisation, providing a justification for the¬†Francoist r√©gime, which expanded the threat to an international Judeo-Masonic-Communist conspiracy (see also:¬†Jewish Bolshevism).


Conceptual influence

According to¬†Danny Keren, a member of the Department of Computer Science at¬†University of Haifa, the “conceptual inspiration” of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion was the 1797 treatise,¬†Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism¬†by the French priest¬†Augustin Barruel, which claimed the Revolution was a Masonic-led conspiracy with the aim of overthrowing the moral teachings of the¬†Catholic Church. According to Keren:

[I]n his treatise, Barruel did not himself blame the Jews, who were emancipated as a result of the Revolution. However, in 1806, Barruel circulated a fabricated letter, probably sent to him by members of the state police opposed to Napoleon Bonaparte’s liberal policy toward the Jews, calling attention to the alleged part of the Jews in the conspiracy he had earlier attributed to the Masons. This myth of an international Jewish conspiracy reappeared later on in 19th century Europe in places such as Germany and Poland.[4]

According to the Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon website:

While it is both simplistic and specious to lay the responsibility for the French Revolution at the door of Freemasonry, there is no question that freemasons, as individuals, were active in building, and rebuilding, a new society. Considering the large number of bodies claiming masonic authority, many men identified today as freemasons were probably unaware of each other’s masonic association and clearly cannot be seen as acting in concert. Yet they did share certain beliefs and ideals.[5]
French Masonry of the time was exclusive, denying initiation to Jews and many other classes of people.[5]


Barry Domvile and The Link

Retired admiral¬†Barry Domvile, the founder of a British pro-Nazi association,¬†The Link,[6]¬†coined the title “Judmas” for the alleged Judeo-Masonic conspiracy.[7]¬†Domvile claimed that the “activities of Judmas are confined to a small section of both Jews and Masons: the large majority have no idea of the work undertaken behind the fa√ßade of Judmas.”[8]¬†Domvile alleged that “the aim of these international Jews is a World state kept in subjection by the power of money, and working for its Jewish masters”[9]¬†and that “Masonry is the executive partner for the conduct of Jewish policy.“[10]

Domvile said that he first started thinking about a Jewish-Masonic theory as a result of Hitler.[8]¬†Domvile referred both to¬†The Protocols of the Elders of Zion,[9]¬†and to¬†The Secret Powers Behind Revolution¬†by¬†viscount¬†L√©on de Poncins.[8]¬†Domvile was aware that¬†The Protocols of the Elders of Zion¬†had been denounced as a forgery, but regarded their authorship as “immaterial”.[10]


Post-Soviet Russia

The Judeo-Masonic conspiracy theories found new currency among the various marginal political forces in post-Soviet Russia, where widespread destitution created fertile ground for conspiracy theories,[11] combined with blood libel and Holocaust denial. These viewpoints are also voiced by several antisemitic writers, notably by Oleg Platonov,[12] Vadim Kozhinov [ru] and Grigory Klimov [ru].[11][13][14] An opinion poll conducted in Moscow circa 1990 has shown that 18% of Moscow residents believed that there is Zionist conspiracy against Russia and further 25% did not exclude such a possibility.


Link to the Bilderberg group

Contemporary conspiracy theorists, who hew to theories centered on the¬†Bilderberg Group¬†and an alleged impending¬†New World Order, often draw upon older concepts found in the Jewish-Masonic conspiracy theory, frequently blaming the¬†Rothschild family¬†or “international bankers”.[15]¬†Because of the use of themes and tropes traditionally viewed as antisemitic, these contemporary conspiracy theorists tend to draw the ire of groups sensitive to antisemitic terminology, such as the¬†Anti-Defamation League.[15]

The New World Order (NWO) Conspiracy Theory

The New World Order (NWO) Conspiracy Theory

The¬†New World Order¬†(NWO) is a¬†conspiracy theory¬†that¬†hypothesizes¬†a secretly emerging¬†totalitarian¬†world government.[3][4][5][6][7]¬†The common theme in conspiracy theories about a New World Order is that a¬†secretive¬†power¬†elite¬†with a¬†globalist¬†agenda is conspiring to eventually achieve¬†world domination¬†and rule the world through an¬†authoritarian¬†one-world government‚ÄĒwhich will replace sovereign¬†nation-states‚ÄĒand an all-encompassing¬†propaganda¬†whose ideology hails the establishment of the New World Order as the culmination of history’s progress. Many influential historical and contemporary figures have therefore been alleged to be part of a¬†cabal¬†that operates through many¬†front organizations¬†to orchestrate significant political and financial events, ranging from causing systemic crises to pushing through controversial policies, at both national and international levels, as steps in an ongoing plot to achieve world domination.[3][4][5][6][7]

Before the early 1990s, New World Order conspiracism was limited to two American countercultures, primarily the militantly anti-government right, and secondarily the part of fundamentalist Christianity concerned with the eschatological end-time emergence of the Antichrist.[8] Academics who study conspiracy theories and religious extremism, such as Michael Barkun and Chip Berlet, observed that right-wing populist conspiracy theories about a New World Order not only had been embraced by many seekers of stigmatized knowledge but also had seeped into popular culture, thereby fueling a surge of interest and participation in survivalism and paramilitarism as many people actively prepare for apocalyptic and millenarian scenarios.[4][6] These political scientists warn that mass hysteria over New World Order conspiracy theories could eventually have devastating effects on American political life, ranging from escalating lone-wolf terrorism to the rise to power of authoritarian ultranationalist demagogues.[4][6][9]

History of the term
Main article: New world order (politics)
General usage (pre-Cold War)

During the 20th century, political figures such as¬†Woodrow Wilson¬†and¬†Winston Churchill¬†used the term “new world order” to refer to a new period of history characterized by a dramatic change in world political thought and in the¬†global balance of power¬†after¬†World War I¬†and¬†World War II.[10]¬†The¬†interwar¬†and¬†post-World War II¬†period were seen as opportunities to implement¬†idealistic¬†proposals for¬†global governance¬†by collective efforts to address worldwide problems that go beyond the capacity of individual¬†nation-states¬†to resolve, while nevertheless respecting the right of nations to¬†self-determination. Such collective initiatives manifested in the formation of¬†intergovernmental organizations¬†such as the¬†League of Nations¬†in 1920, the¬†United Nations¬†(UN) in 1945, and the¬†North Atlantic Treaty Organization¬†(NATO) in 1949, along with international regimes such as the¬†Bretton Woods system¬†and the¬†General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade¬†(GATT), implemented to maintain a cooperative balance of power and facilitate reconciliation between nations to prevent the prospect of¬†another global conflict. These¬†cosmopolitan¬†efforts to instill¬†liberal internationalism¬†were regularly criticized and opposed by American¬†paleoconservative¬†business nationalists¬†from the 1930s on.[11][need quotation to verify]

Progressives welcomed international organizations and regimes such as the United Nations in the aftermath of the two World Wars, but argued that these initiatives suffered from a democratic deficit and were therefore inadequate not only to prevent another world war but to foster global justice, as the UN was chartered to be a free association of sovereign nation-states rather than a transition to democratic world government. Thus, cosmopolitan activists around the globe, perceiving the IGOs as too ineffectual for global change, formed a world federalist movement.[12]

British writer and futurist¬†H. G. Wells¬†went further than progressives in the 1940s, by appropriating and redefining the term “new world order” as a synonym for the establishment of a technocratic¬†world state¬†and of a¬†planned economy, garnering popularity in¬†state socialist¬†circles.[13][14]

Usage as reference to a conspiracy (Cold War era)
During the¬†Second Red Scare, both secular and¬†Christian right¬†American agitators, largely influenced by the work of Canadian conspiracy theorist¬†William Guy Carr, increasingly embraced and spread dubious fears of¬†Freemasons,¬†Illuminati¬†and¬†Jews¬†as the alleged driving forces behind an “international communist¬†conspiracy.” The threat of “Godless communism”, in the form of an¬†atheistic,¬†bureaucratic collectivist¬†world government,¬†demonized¬†as the “Red Menace”, became the focus of¬†apocalyptic¬†millenarian¬†conspiracism. The Red Scare came to shape one of the core ideas of the political right in the United States, which is that¬†liberals¬†and¬†progressives, with their¬†welfare-state¬†policies and international cooperation programs such as¬†foreign aid, supposedly contribute to a gradual process of global¬†collectivism¬†that will inevitably lead to nations being replaced with a¬†communistic/collectivist one-world government.[15]¬†James Warburg, appearing before the¬†United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations¬†in 1950, famously stated: “We shall have world government, whether or not we like it. The question is only whether world government will be achieved by consent or by conquest.”[16]

Right-wing populist¬†advocacy groups with a¬†paleoconservative¬†world-view, such as the¬†John Birch Society, disseminated a multitude of conspiracy theories in the 1960s claiming that the governments of both the United States and the¬†Soviet Union¬†were controlled by a¬†cabal¬†of¬†corporate internationalists, “greedy” bankers and corrupt politicians who were intent on using the UN as the vehicle to create a “One World Government”. This¬†anti-globalist¬†conspiracism fueled the campaign for¬†U.S. withdrawal from the UN. American writer¬†Mary M. Davison, in her 1966 booklet¬†The Profound Revolution, traced the alleged New World Order conspiracy to the establishment of the U.S.¬†Federal Reserve¬†in 1913 by international bankers, whom she claimed later formed the¬†Council on Foreign Relations¬†in 1921 as a¬†shadow government. At the time the booklet was published, many readers would have interpreted “international bankers” as a reference to a postulated “international¬†Jewish banking conspiracy” masterminded by the¬†Rothschild family.[15][additional citation(s) needed]

Arguing that the term “New World Order” is used by a secretive global elite dedicated to the eradication of the sovereignty of the world’s nations, American writer¬†Gary Allen‚ÄĒin his books¬†None Dare Call It Conspiracy¬†(1971),¬†Rockefeller: Campaigning for the New World Order¬†(1974), and¬†Say “No!” to the New World Order¬†(1987)‚ÄĒarticulated the anti-globalist theme of contemporary¬†right-wing¬†conspiracism in the U.S. After the¬†fall of communism¬†in the early 1990s, the¬†de facto¬†subject of New World Order conspiracism shifted from¬†crypto-communists, perceived to be plotting to establish an atheistic world communist government, to globalists, perceived to be plotting to implement a collectivist generally, unified world government ultimately controlled by an untouchable¬†oligarchy¬†of international bankers, corrupt politicians, and¬†corporatists, or the United Nations itself. The shift in perception was inspired by growing¬†opposition to corporate internationalism¬†on the American right in the 1990s.[15][additional citation(s) needed]

In his speech, Toward a New World Order, delivered on 11 September 1990 during a joint session of the US Congress, President George H. W. Bush described his objectives for post-Cold War global governance in cooperation with post-Soviet states. He stated:

Until now, the world we’ve known has been a world divided‚ÄĒa world of barbed wire and concrete block, conflict, and the cold war. Now, we can see a new world coming into view. A world in which there is the genuine prospect of new world order. In the words of Winston Churchill, a “world order” in which “the principles of justice and fair play … protect the weak against the strong …” A world where the United Nations, freed from cold war stalemate, is poised to fulfill the historic vision of its founders. A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations.[17]

The New York Times¬†observed that progressives were denouncing this new world order as a rationalization of¬†American imperial¬†ambitions in the¬†Middle East¬†at the time. At the same time¬†conservatives¬†rejected any new security arrangements altogether and fulminated about any possibility of a UN revival.[18]¬†Chip Berlet, an American investigative reporter specializing in the study of right-wing movements in the U.S., wrote that the Christian and secular far-right were especially terrified by Bush’s speech. Fundamentalist Christian groups interpreted Bush’s words as signaling the¬†End Times. At the same time, more secular theorists approached it from an anti-communist and anti-collectivist standpoint and feared for hegemony over all countries by the United Nations.[4]

Post‚ÄďCold War usage

American televangelist Pat Robertson, with his 1991 best-selling book The New World Order, became the most prominent Christian disseminator of conspiracy theories about recent American history. He describes a scenario where Wall Street, the Federal Reserve System, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Bilderberg Group and the Trilateral Commission control the flow of events from behind the scenes, constantly nudging people covertly in the direction of world government for the Antichrist.[6]

It has been observed that, throughout the 1990s, the galvanizing language used by conspiracy theorists such as¬†Linda Thompson,¬†Mark Koernke¬†and¬†Robert K. Spear¬†led to militancy and the rise of the¬†American militia movement.[19]¬†The militia movement’s¬†anti-government¬†ideology was spread through speeches at rallies and meetings, books and videotapes sold at¬†gun shows, shortwave and satellite radio, fax networks, and computer bulletin boards.[15]¬†It has been argued that it was overnight AM radio shows and propagandistic¬†viral content¬†on the¬†internet¬†that most effectively contributed to more extremist responses to the perceived threat of the New World Order. This led to the substantial growth of New World Order conspiracism, with it retroactively finding its way into the previously apolitical literature of numerous¬†Kennedy assassinologists,¬†ufologists,¬†lost land theorists¬†and‚ÄĒpartially inspired by fears surrounding the¬†“Satanic panic”‚ÄĒoccultists. From the mid-1990s onward, the amorphous appeal of those subcultures transmitted New World Order conspiracism to a larger audience of seekers of¬†stigmatized knowledge, with the common characteristic of disillusionment of¬†political efficacy.[6]

From the mid-1990s to the early 2000s, Hollywood¬†conspiracy-thriller¬†television shows and films also played a role in introducing a general audience to various¬†fringe, esoteric theories related to New World Order conspiracism‚ÄĒwhich by that point had developed to include¬†black helicopters,¬†FEMA¬†“concentration camps”, etc.‚ÄĒtheories which for decades previously were confined to largely right-wing subcultures. The 1993‚Äď2002 television series¬†The X-Files, the 1997 film¬†Conspiracy Theory¬†and the 1998 film¬†The X-Files: Fight the Future¬†are often cited as notable examples.[6]

Following the start of the 21st century, and specifically during the¬†late-2000s financial crisis, many politicians and pundits, such as¬†Gordon Brown[20]¬†and¬†Henry Kissinger,[21]¬†used the term “new world order” in their advocacy for a comprehensive reform of the¬†global financial system¬†and their¬†calls for a “New Bretton Woods”¬†taking into account¬†emerging markets¬†such as China and India. These public declarations reinvigorated New World Order conspiracism, culminating in talk-show host¬†Sean Hannity¬†stating on his¬†Fox News¬†program¬†Hannity¬†that the “conspiracy theorists were right”.[22]¬†Progressive¬†media-watchdog¬†groups have repeatedly criticized¬†Fox News¬†in general, and its now-defunct opinion show¬†Glenn Beck¬†in particular, for not only disseminating New World Order conspiracy theories to mainstream audiences, but possibly agitating so-called “lone wolf” extremism, particularly from the¬†radical right.[23][24]

In 2009, American film directors¬†Luke Meyer¬†and¬†Andrew Neel¬†released¬†New World Order, a critically acclaimed documentary film which explores the world of conspiracy theorists‚ÄĒsuch as American radio host¬†Alex Jones‚ÄĒwho vigorously oppose what they perceive as an emerging New World Order.[25]¬†The growing dissemination and popularity of conspiracy theories has also created an alliance between right-wing agitators and¬†hip hop music’s left-wing rappers (such as¬†KRS-One,¬†Professor Griff¬†of¬†Public Enemy¬†and¬†Immortal Technique), illustrating how¬†anti-elitist¬†conspiracism can create unlikely political allies in efforts to oppose a political system.[26]¬†Vladimir Putin¬†has repeatedly advocated for a “new world order” but it is unclear if he is referring to a global authoritarian takeover or the emergence of a global system independent of US dominance.¬†[27]

Conspiracy theories

There are numerous systemic conspiracy theories through which the concept of a New World Order is viewed. The following is a list of the major ones in roughly chronological order:[28]

End time

Since the 19th century, many apocalyptic millennial Christian eschatologists, starting with John Nelson Darby, have predicted a globalist conspiracy to impose a tyrannical New World Order governing structure as the fulfillment of prophecies about the “end time” in the Bible, specifically in the Book of Ezekiel, the Book of Daniel, the Olivet discourse found in the Synoptic Gospels, 2 Esdras 11:32 and Revelation 13:7.[29] They claim that people who have made a deal with the Devil to gain wealth and power have become pawns in a supernatural chess game to move humanity into accepting a utopian world government that rests on the spiritual foundations of a syncretic-messianic world religion, which will later reveal itself to be a dystopian world empire that imposes the imperial cult of an ‚ÄúUnholy Trinity‚ÄĚ of Satan, the Antichrist and the False Prophet.[citation needed] In many contemporary Christian conspiracy theories, the False Prophet will be either the last pope of the Catholic Church (groomed and installed by an Alta Vendita or Jesuit conspiracy), a guru from the New Age movement, or even the leader of an elite fundamentalist Christian organization like the Fellowship, while the Antichrist will be either the President of the European Union, the Caliph of a pan-Islamic state, or even the Secretary-General of the United Nations.[6][29]

Some of the most vocal critics of end-time conspiracy theories come from within Christianity.[15]¬†In 1993, historian Bruce Barron wrote a stern rebuke of apocalyptic Christian conspiracism in the¬†Christian Research Journal, when reviewing¬†Robertson’s 1991 book¬†The New World Order.[30]¬†Another critique can be found in historian Gregory S. Camp’s 1997 book¬†Selling Fear: Conspiracy Theories and End-Times Paranoia.[3]¬†Religious studies scholar Richard T. Hughes argues that “New World Order” rhetoric libels the Christian faith, since the “New World Order” as defined by Christian conspiracy theorists has no basis in the Bible whatsoever. Furthermore, he argues that not only is this idea unbiblical, it is positively anti-biblical and fundamentally¬†anti-Christian, because by misinterpreting key passages in the Book of Revelation, it turns a comforting message about the coming¬†kingdom of God¬†into one of fear, panic and despair in the face of an allegedly approaching one-world government.[29]¬†Progressive Christians, such as preacher-theologian¬†Peter J. Gomes, caution¬†Christian fundamentalists¬†that a “spirit of fear” can distort scripture and history through dangerously combining¬†biblical literalism,¬†apocalyptic timetables,¬†demonization¬†and oppressive prejudices,[31][32]¬†while Camp warns of the “very real danger that Christians could pick up some extra spiritual baggage” by credulously embracing conspiracy theories.[3]¬†They therefore call on Christians who indulge in conspiracism to¬†repent.[33][34]

Freemasonry

Freemasonry is one of the world’s oldest secular fraternal organizations and arose in Great Britain during the 18th century. Over the years, several allegations and conspiracy theories have been directed towards Freemasonry, including the allegation that Freemasons have a hidden political agenda and are conspiring to bring about a New World Order, a world government organized according to Masonic principles or governed only by Freemasons.[15]

The esoteric nature of Masonic symbolism and rites led to Freemasons first being accused of secretly practicing Satanism in the late 18th century.[15] The original allegation of a conspiracy within Freemasonry to subvert religions and governments to take over the world traces back to Scottish author John Robison, whose reactionary conspiracy theories crossed the Atlantic and influenced outbreaks of Protestant anti-Masonry in the United States during the 19th century.[15] In the 1890s, French writer Léo Taxil wrote a series of pamphlets and books denouncing Freemasonry and charging their lodges with worshiping Lucifer as the Supreme Being and Great Architect of the Universe. Despite the fact that Taxil admitted that his claims were all a hoax, they were and still are believed and repeated by numerous conspiracy theorists and had a huge influence on subsequent anti-Masonic claims about Freemasonry.[35]

Some conspiracy theorists eventually speculated that some¬†Founding Fathers of the United States, such as¬†George Washington¬†and¬†Benjamin Franklin, were having Masonic¬†sacred geometric¬†designs interwoven into American society, particularly in the¬†Great Seal of the United States, the¬†United States one-dollar bill, the architecture of¬†National Mall landmarks¬†and the¬†streets and highways of Washington, D.C., as part of a master plan to create the first “Masonic government” as a model for the coming New World Order.[6]

A Masonic Lodge room

Freemasons rebut these claims of a Masonic conspiracy. Freemasonry, which promotes¬†rationalism, places no power in occult symbols themselves, and it is not a part of its principles to view the drawing of symbols, no matter how large, as an act of consolidating or controlling power.[36]¬†Furthermore, there is no published information establishing the Masonic membership of the men responsible for the design of the Great Seal.[36][37]¬†While conspiracy theorists assert that there are elements of Masonic influence on the Great Seal of the United States and that these elements were intentionally or unintentionally used because the creators were familiar with the symbols,[38]¬†in fact, the all-seeing¬†Eye of Providence¬†and the unfinished pyramid were symbols used as much outside Masonic lodges as within them in the late 18th century. Therefore, the designers were drawing from common esoteric symbols.[39]¬†The Latin phrase “novus ordo seclorum”, appearing on the reverse side of the Great Seal since 1782 and the back of the one-dollar bill since 1935, translates to “New Order of the Ages”,[1]¬†and alludes to the beginning of an era where the United States of America is an independent nation-state; conspiracy theorists often mistranslate it as “New World Order”.[2]

Although the¬†European continental branch of Freemasonry¬†has organizations that allow political discussion within their Masonic Lodges, Masonic researcher Trevor W. McKeown argues that the accusations ignore several facts. Firstly, the many Grand Lodges are independent and sovereign, meaning they act independently and do not have a common agenda. The points of belief of the various lodges often differ. Secondly, famous Freemasons have always held views that span the political spectrum and show no particular pattern or preference. As such, the term “Masonic government” is erroneous; there is no consensus among Freemasons about what an ideal government would look like.[40]

Illuminati

The Order of the Illuminati was an Enlightenment-age secret society founded by university professor Adam Weishaupt on 1 May 1776, in Upper Bavaria, Germany. The movement consisted of advocates of freethought, secularism, liberalism, republicanism, and gender equality, recruited from the German Masonic Lodges, who sought to teach rationalism through mystery schools. In 1785, the order was infiltrated, broken up, and suppressed by the government agents of Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, in his preemptive campaign to neutralize the threat of secret societies ever becoming hotbeds of conspiracies to overthrow the Bavarian monarchy and its state religion, Roman Catholicism.[41] There is no evidence that the Bavarian Illuminati survived its suppression in 1785.[42]

In the late 18th century,¬†reactionary¬†conspiracy theorists, such as Scottish physicist¬†John Robison¬†and French¬†Jesuit¬†priest¬†Augustin Barruel, began speculating that the Illuminati had survived their suppression and become the masterminds behind the¬†French Revolution¬†and the¬†Reign of Terror. The Illuminati were accused of being¬†subversives¬†who were attempting to orchestrate a¬†revolutionary wave¬†secretly in¬†Europe¬†and the rest of the world to spread the most¬†radical¬†ideas and movements of the Enlightenment‚ÄĒanti-clericalism,¬†anti-monarchism, and¬†anti-patriarchalism‚ÄĒand to create a world¬†noocracy¬†and¬†cult of reason. During the 19th century, fear of an Illuminati conspiracy was a real concern of the European¬†ruling classes, and their oppressive reactions to this unfounded fear provoked in 1848¬†the very revolutions they sought to prevent.[42][additional citation(s) needed]

During the¬†interwar period¬†of the 20th century,¬†fascist¬†propagandists, such as British revisionist historian¬†Nesta Helen Webster¬†and American socialite¬†Edith Starr Miller, not only popularized the myth of an Illuminati conspiracy but claimed that it was a subversive secret society which served the Jewish elites that supposedly propped up both¬†finance capitalism¬†and¬†Soviet communism¬†in order to¬†divide and rule¬†the world. American evangelist¬†Gerald Burton Winrod¬†and other conspiracy theorists within the¬†fundamentalist Christian¬†movement in the United States‚ÄĒwhich emerged in the 1910s as a backlash against the principles of Enlightenment¬†secular humanism,¬†modernism, and liberalism‚ÄĒbecame the main channel of dissemination of Illuminati conspiracy theories in the U.S..¬†Right-wing populists, such as members of the¬†John Birch Society, subsequently began speculating that some collegiate fraternities (Skull and Bones), gentlemen’s clubs (Bohemian Club), and think tanks (Council on Foreign Relations,¬†Trilateral Commission) of the¬†American upper class¬†are¬†front organizations¬†of the Illuminati, which they accuse of plotting to create a New World Order through a one-world government.[6][additional citation(s) needed]

The Open Conspiracy

In his 1928 book The Open Conspiracy British writer and futurist H. G. Wells promoted cosmopolitanism and offered blueprints for a world revolution and world brain to establish a technocratic world state and planned economy.[58] Wells warned, however, in his 1940 book The New World Order that:

… when the struggle seems to be drifting definitely towards a world social democracy, there may still be very great delays and disappointments before it becomes an efficient and beneficent world system. Countless people … will hate the new world order, be rendered unhappy by the frustration of their passions and ambitions through its advent and will die protesting against it. When we attempt to evaluate its promise, we have to bear in mind the distress of a generation or so of malcontents, many of them quite gallant and graceful-looking people.[13]
Wells’s books were influential in giving a second meaning to the term “new world order”, which would only be used by¬†state socialist¬†supporters and¬†anti-communist¬†opponents for generations to come. However, despite the popularity and notoriety of his ideas, Wells failed to exert a deeper and more lasting influence because he was unable to concentrate his energies on a direct appeal to¬†intelligentsias¬†who would, ultimately, have to coordinate the Wellsian new world order.[59]

New Age

British¬†neo-Theosophical¬†occultist¬†Alice Bailey, one of the founders of the so-called¬†New Age¬†movement, prophesied in 1940 the eventual victory of the¬†Allies of World War II¬†over the¬†Axis powers¬†(which occurred in 1945) and the establishment by the Allies of a political and religious New World Order. She saw a federal world government as the culmination of¬†Wells’ Open Conspiracy¬†but favorably argued that it would be¬†synarchist¬†because it was guided by the¬†Masters of the Ancient Wisdom, intent on preparing humanity for the¬†mystical second coming¬†of¬†Christ, and the dawning of the¬†Age of Aquarius. According to Bailey, a group of ascended masters called the¬†Great White Brotherhood¬†works on the “inner planes” to oversee the transition to the New World Order but, for now, the members of this¬†Spiritual Hierarchy¬†are only known to a few occult scientists, with whom they communicate¬†telepathically, but as the need for their personal involvement in the plan increases, there will be an “Externalization of the Hierarchy” and everyone will know of their presence on Earth.[60]

New Age¬†author¬†Alice Bailey’s writings have been condemned by¬†Christian right¬†conspiracy theorists.
Bailey’s writings, along with American writer¬†Marilyn Ferguson’s 1980 book¬†The Aquarian Conspiracy, contributed to conspiracy theorists of the¬†Christian right¬†viewing the New Age movement as the “false religion” that would¬†supersede¬†Christianity in a New World Order.[61]¬†Skeptics argue that the term “New Age movement” is a misnomer, generally used by conspiracy theorists as a catch-all rubric for any¬†new religious movement¬†that is not¬†fundamentalist Christian. By this logic, anything that is not Christian is by definition actively and willfully¬†anti-Christian.[62]

Paradoxically, since the first decade of the 21st century, New World Order conspiracism is increasingly being embraced and propagandized by New Age¬†occultists, who are people bored by¬†rationalism¬†and drawn to¬†stigmatized knowledge‚ÄĒsuch as¬†alternative medicine,¬†astrology,¬†quantum mysticism,¬†spiritualism, and¬†theosophy.[6]¬†Thus, New Age conspiracy theorists, such as the makers of documentary films like¬†Esoteric Agenda, claim that globalists who plot on behalf of the New World Order are simply misusing occultism for Machiavellian ends, such as adopting 21 December 2012 as the exact date for the establishment of the New World Order to take advantage of the growing¬†2012 phenomenon, which has its origins in the fringe¬†Mayanist¬†theories of New Age writers¬†Jos√© Arg√ľelles,¬†Terence McKenna, and¬†Daniel Pinchbeck.[citation needed]

Skeptics argue that the connection of conspiracy theorists and occultists follows from their common fallacious premises. First, any widely accepted belief must necessarily be false. Second, stigmatized knowledge‚ÄĒwhat¬†the Establishment¬†spurns‚ÄĒmust be true. The result is a large,¬†self-referential network¬†in which, for example, some¬†UFO religionists¬†promote anti-Jewish phobias while some antisemites practice Peruvian¬†shamanism.[6]

Fourth Reich

Conspiracy theorists often use the term “Fourth Reich” simply as a pejorative synonym for the “New World Order” to imply that its state ideology and government will be similar to Germany’s Third Reich.[citation needed]

Conspiracy theorists, such as American writer Jim Marrs, claim that some ex-Nazis, who survived the fall of the Greater German Reich, along with sympathizers in the United States and elsewhere, given haven by organizations like ODESSA and Die Spinne, has been working behind the scenes since the end of World War II to enact at least some principles of Nazism (e.g., militarism, imperialism, widespread spying on citizens, corporatism, the use of propaganda to manufacture a national consensus) into culture, government, and business worldwide, but primarily in the U.S. They cite the influence of ex-Nazi scientists brought in under Operation Paperclip to help advance aerospace manufacturing in the U.S. with technological principles from Nazi UFOs, and the acquisition and creation of conglomerates by ex-Nazis and their sympathizers after the war, in both Europe and the U.S.[63]

This¬†neo-Nazi¬†conspiracy is said to be animated by an “Iron Dream” in which the¬†American Empire, having thwarted the¬†Judeo-Masonic conspiracy¬†and overthrown its¬†Zionist Occupation Government, gradually establishes a Fourth Reich formerly known as the “Western Imperium”‚ÄĒa¬†pan-Aryan¬†world empire modeled after¬†Adolf Hitler’s¬†New Order‚ÄĒwhich reverses the “decline of the West” and ushers a golden age of¬†white supremacy.[64]

Skeptics argue that conspiracy theorists grossly overestimate the influence of ex-Nazis and neo-Nazis on American society and point out that political repression at home and imperialism abroad have a long history in the United States that predates the 20th century. Some political scientists, such as Sheldon Wolin, have expressed concern that the twin forces of democratic deficit and superpower status have paved the way in the U.S. for the emergence of an inverted totalitarianism which contradicts many principles of Nazism.[65]

Alien invasion

Since the late 1970s,¬†extraterrestrials¬†from other¬†habitable planets¬†or¬†parallel dimensions¬†(such as “Greys”) and intraterrestrials from¬†Hollow Earth¬†(such as “Reptilians”) have been included in the New World Order conspiracy, in more or less dominant roles, as in the theories put forward by American writers Stan Deyo and¬†Milton William Cooper, and British writer¬†David Icke.[6][66][67]

The common theme in these conspiracy theories is that aliens have been among us for decades, centuries or millennia. Still, a government¬†cover-up¬†enforced by “Men in Black” has shielded the public from knowledge of a secret¬†alien invasion. Motivated by¬†speciesism¬†and¬†imperialism, these aliens have been and are secretly manipulating developments and changes in¬†human¬†society to more efficiently control and exploit human beings. In some theories, alien infiltrators have¬†shapeshifted¬†into human form and¬†move freely throughout human society, even to the point of taking control of command positions in governmental, corporate, and religious institutions, and are now in the final stages of their plan to take over the world.[67]¬†A mythical covert government agency of the United States code-named¬†Majestic 12¬†is often imagined being the¬†shadow government¬†which¬†collaborates¬†with the alien occupation and permits¬†alien abductions, in exchange for assistance in the development and testing of¬†military “flying saucers”¬†at¬†Area 51, in order for¬†United States armed forces¬†to achieve¬†full-spectrum dominance.[6]

Skeptics, who adhere to the¬†psychosocial hypothesis¬†for¬†unidentified flying objects, argue that the convergence of New World Order conspiracy theory and¬†UFO conspiracy theory¬†is a product of not only the era’s widespread mistrust of governments and the popularity of the¬†extraterrestrial hypothesis¬†for UFOs but of the¬†far right¬†and¬†ufologists¬†joining forces. Barkun notes that the only positive side to this development is that, if conspirators plotting to rule the world are believed to be aliens, traditional human¬†scapegoats¬†(Freemasons,¬†Illuminati,¬†Jews, etc.) are downgraded or exonerated.[6]

Brave New World

Antiscience and neo-Luddite conspiracy theorists emphasize technology forecasting in their New World Order conspiracy theories. They speculate that the global power elite are reactionary modernists pursuing a transhumanist plan to develop and use human enhancement technologies to become a “posthuman ruling caste”, while change accelerates toward a technological singularity‚ÄĒa theorized future point of discontinuity when events will accelerate at such a pace that normal unenhanced humans will be unable to predict or even understand the rapid changes occurring in the world around them. Conspiracy theorists fear the outcome will either be the emergence of a Brave New World-like dystopia‚ÄĒa “Brave New World Order”‚ÄĒor the extinction of the human species.[68]

Democratic transhumanists, such as American sociologist¬†James Hughes, counter that many influential members of the United States establishment are¬†bioconservatives¬†strongly opposed to¬†human enhancement, as demonstrated by¬†President Bush’s Council on Bioethics’s proposed international treaty prohibiting¬†human cloning¬†and¬†germline engineering. Furthermore, he argues that conspiracy theorists underestimate how fringe the transhumanist movement really is.[69]

Gradualism

Conspiracy theorists generally speculate that the New World Order is being implemented gradually, citing the formation of the U.S. Federal Reserve System in 1913; the League of Nations in 1919; the International Monetary Fund in 1944; the United Nations in 1945; the World Bank in 1945; the World Health Organization in 1948; the European Union and the Euro in 1993; the World Trade Organization in 1998; the African Union in 2002, and the Union of South American Nations in 2008 as major milestones.[6]

An increasingly popular conspiracy theory among American right-wing populists is that the hypothetical North American Union and the amero currency, proposed by the Council on Foreign Relations and its counterparts in Mexico and Canada, will be the next milestone in the implementation of the New World Order. The theory holds that a group of shadowy and mostly nameless international elites is planning to replace the federal government of the United States with a transnational government. Therefore, conspiracy theorists believe the borders between Mexico, Canada, and the United States are in the process of being erased, covertly, by a group of globalists whose ultimate goal is to replace national governments in Washington, D.C., Ottawa, and Mexico City with a European-style political union and a bloated E.U.-style bureaucracy.[70]

Skeptics argue that the North American Union exists only as a proposal contained in one of a thousand academic and policy papers published each year that advocate all manner of idealistic but ultimately unrealistic approaches to social, economic, and political problems. Most of these are passed around in their circles and eventually filed away and forgotten by junior staffers in congressional offices. However, some of these papers become touchstones for the conspiracy-minded and form the basis of all kinds of unfounded xenophobic fears, especially during times of economic anxiety.[70]

For example, in March 2009, as a result of the¬†late-2000s financial crisis, the People’s Republic of China and the Russian Federation pressed for urgent consideration of a new international¬†reserve currency¬†and the¬†United Nations Conference on Trade and Development¬†proposed greatly expanding the I.M.F.’s¬†special drawing rights. Conspiracy theorists fear these proposals are a call for the U.S. to adopt a¬†single global currency¬†for a New World Order.[71][72]

Judging that both national governments and global institutions have proven ineffective in addressing global problems that go beyond the capacity of individual nation-states to solve, some political scientists critical of New World Order conspiracism, such as Mark C. Partridge, argue that regionalism will be the major force in the coming decades, pockets of power around regional centers: Western Europe around Brussels, the Western Hemisphere around Washington, D.C., East Asia around Beijing, and Eastern Europe around Moscow. As such, the E.U., the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, and the G-20 will likely become more influential as time progresses. The question then is not whether global governance is gradually emerging, but rather how will these regional powers interact with one another.[73]

Coup d’√©tat

American¬†right-wing populist¬†conspiracy theorists, especially those who joined the¬†militia movement¬†in the United States, speculate that the New World Order will be implemented through a dramatic¬†coup d’√©tat¬†by a “secret team”, using¬†black helicopters, in the U.S. and other nation-states to bring about a¬†totalitarian¬†world government controlled by the¬†United Nations¬†and enforced by troops of foreign¬†U.N. peacekeepers. Following the¬†Rex 84¬†and¬†Operation Garden Plot¬†plans, this military coup would involve the suspension of the¬†Constitution, the imposition of¬†martial law, and the appointment of¬†military commanders to head state and local governments¬†and to detain¬†dissidents.[74]

These conspiracy theorists, who are all strong believers in a right to keep and bear arms, are extremely fearful that the passing of any gun control legislation will be later followed by the abolition of personal gun ownership and a campaign of gun confiscation, and that the refugee camps of emergency management agencies such as FEMA will be used for the internment of suspected subversives, making little effort to distinguish true threats to the New World Order from pacifist dissidents.[24]

Before 2000, some survivalists wrongly believed this process would be set in motion by the predicted Y2K problem causing societal collapse.[75] Since many left-wing and right-wing conspiracy theorists believe that the 11 September attacks were a false flag operation carried out by the United States intelligence community, as part of a strategy of tension to justify political repression at home and preemptive war abroad, they have become convinced that a more catastrophic terrorist incident will be responsible for triggering Executive Directive 51 in order to complete the transition to a police state.[76]

Skeptics argue that unfounded fears about an imminent or eventual gun ban, military coup, internment, or U.N. invasion and occupation are rooted in the¬†siege mentality¬†of the American militia movement but also an¬†apocalyptic¬†millenarianism¬†which provides a basic narrative within the political right in the U.S., claiming that the idealized society (i.e., constitutional republic,¬†Jeffersonian democracy, “Christian nation”, “white nation”) is thwarted by subversive conspiracies of¬†liberal¬†secular humanists¬†who want “Big Government” and globalists who plot on behalf of the New World Order.[15]

Mass surveillance

Conspiracy theorists concerned with surveillance abuse believe that the New World Order is being implemented by the cult of intelligence at the core of the surveillance-industrial complex through mass surveillance and the use of Social Security numbers, the bar-coding of retail goods with Universal Product Code markings, and, most recently, RFID tagging by microchip implants.[6]

Claiming that corporations and government are planning to track every move of consumers and citizens with RFID as the latest step toward a 1984-like surveillance state, consumer privacy advocates, such as Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre,[77] have become Christian conspiracy theorists who believe spychips must be resisted because they argue that modern database and communications technologies, coupled with point of sale data-capture equipment and sophisticated ID and authentication systems, now make it possible to require a biometrically associated number or mark to make purchases. They fear that the ability to implement such a system closely resembles the Number of the Beast prophesied in the Book of Revelation.[6]

In January 2002, the¬†Information Awareness Office¬†(IAO) was established by the¬†Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency¬†(DARPA) to bring together several DARPA projects focused on applying information technology to counter¬†asymmetric threats¬†to¬†national security. Following public criticism that the development and deployment of these technologies could potentially lead to a mass surveillance system, the IAO was defunded by the United States Congress in 2003.[78]¬†The second source of controversy involved IAO’s original logo, which depicted the “all-seeing”¬†Eye of Providence¬†atop of a pyramid looking down over the globe, accompanied by the Latin phrase¬†scientia est potentia¬†(knowledge is power). Although DARPA eventually removed the logo from its website, it left a lasting impression on privacy advocates.[79]¬†It also inflamed conspiracy theorists,[80]¬†who misinterpret the “eye and pyramid” as the¬†Masonic¬†symbol of the¬†Illuminati,[37][81]¬†an 18th-century secret society they speculate continues to exist and is plotting on behalf of a New World Order.[41][42]

American historian¬†Richard Landes, who specialized in the history of¬†apocalypticism¬†and was co-founder and director of the¬†Center for Millennial Studies¬†at Boston University, argues that new and emerging technologies often trigger¬†alarmism¬†among¬†millenarians. Even the introduction of¬†Gutenberg’s printing press¬†in 1436 caused waves of apocalyptic thinking. The¬†Year 2000 problem, bar codes, and Social Security numbers all triggered¬†end-time¬†warnings which either proved to be false or were no longer taken seriously once the public became accustomed to these technological changes.[82]¬†Civil libertarians argue that the privatization of surveillance and the rise of the surveillance-industrial complex in the United States does raise legitimate concerns about the erosion of¬†privacy.[83]¬†However, skeptics of mass surveillance conspiracism caution that such concerns should be disentangled from secular paranoia about¬†Big Brother¬†or religious hysteria about the¬†Antichrist.[6]

Occultism

Conspiracy theorists of the¬†Christian right, starting with British revisionist historian¬†Nesta Helen Webster, believe there is an ancient¬†occult¬†conspiracy‚ÄĒstarted by the first¬†mystagogues¬†of¬†Gnosticism¬†and perpetuated by their alleged¬†esoteric¬†successors, such as the¬†Kabbalists,¬†Cathars,¬†Knights Templar,¬†Hermeticists,¬†Rosicrucians,¬†Freemasons, and, ultimately, the¬†Illuminati‚ÄĒwhich seeks to subvert the¬†Judeo-Christian¬†foundations of the¬†Western world¬†and implement the New World Order through a one-world religion that prepares the masses to embrace the¬†imperial cult¬†of the¬†Antichrist.[6]¬†More broadly, they speculate that globalists who plot on behalf of a New World Order are directed by occult agencies of some sort:¬†unknown superiors,¬†spiritual hierarchies,¬†demons,¬†fallen angels¬†or¬†Lucifer. They believe that these conspirators use the power of occult sciences (numerology), symbols (Eye of Providence), rituals (Masonic degrees), monuments (National Mall landmarks), buildings (Manitoba Legislative Building[84]) and facilities (Denver International Airport) to advance their plot to rule the world.[6][85]

For example, in June 1979, an unknown benefactor under the pseudonym “R. C. Christian” had a huge granite¬†megalith¬†built in the U.S. state of¬†Georgia, which acts like a compass, calendar, and clock. A message comprising ten guides is inscribed on the occult structure in many languages to serve as instructions for survivors of a¬†doomsday event¬†to establish a more enlightened and sustainable civilization than the destroyed one. The “Georgia Guidestones” has subsequently become a spiritual and political¬†Rorschach test¬†onto which any number of ideas can be imposed. Some New Agers and¬†neo-pagans¬†revere it as a¬†ley-line¬†power nexus while a few conspiracy theorists are convinced that they are engraved with the New World Order’s anti-Christian “Ten Commandments.” Should the Guidestones survive for centuries as their creators intended, many more meanings could arise, equally unrelated to the designer’s original intention.[86]

Skeptics argue that the demonization of Western esotericism by conspiracy theorists is rooted in religious intolerance but also in the same moral panics that have fueled witch trials in the Early Modern period, and satanic ritual abuse allegations in the United States.[6]

The Witch Trials

During the witch trials of Europe and North America, conspiracy talk and false accusations led to many deaths.

In the¬†early modern period, from about 1400 to 1775, about 100,000 people were prosecuted for¬†witchcraft¬†in¬†Europe¬†and¬†British America.[1]¬†Between 40,000 and 60,000[2][3]¬†were executed. The¬†witch-hunts¬†were particularly severe in parts of the¬†Holy Roman Empire. Prosecutions for witchcraft reached a high point from 1560 to 1630,[4][5]¬†during the¬†Counter-Reformation¬†and the¬†European wars of religion. Among the lower classes, accusations of witchcraft were usually made by neighbors,[6]¬†and women made formal accusations as much as men did.[7]¬†Magical healers or ‘cunning folk’ were sometimes prosecuted for witchcraft, but seem to have made up a minority of the accused.[8][9]¬†Roughly 80% of those convicted were women,[10]¬†most of them over the age of 40.[11][12][13]¬†In some regions, convicted witches were¬†burnt at the stake.

Population control

Conspiracy theorists believe that the New World Order will also be implemented through¬†human population control¬†to more easily monitor and control the movement of individuals.[6]¬†The means range from stopping the growth of human societies through¬†reproductive health¬†and¬†family planning¬†programs, which promote¬†abstinence,¬†contraception¬†and¬†abortion, or intentionally reducing the bulk of the¬†world population¬†through¬†genocides¬†by mongering unnecessary wars, through¬†plagues¬†by engineering¬†emergent viruses¬†and¬†tainting¬†vaccines, and through¬†environmental disasters¬†by¬†controlling the weather¬†(HAARP,¬†chemtrails), etc. Conspiracy theorists argue that globalists plotting on behalf of a New World Order are¬†neo-Malthusians¬†who engage in¬†overpopulation¬†and¬†climate change¬†alarmism to create public support for coercive population control and ultimately world government.¬†United Nations¬†Agenda 21¬†is condemned as “reconcentrating” people into urban areas and depopulating rural ones, even generating a dystopian novel by¬†Glenn Beck¬†where single-family homes are a distant memory.

Skeptics argue that fears of population control can be traced back to the traumatic legacy of the¬†eugenics¬†movement’s “war against the weak” in the United States during the first decades of the 20th century but also the¬†Second Red Scare¬†in the U.S. during the late 1940s and 1950s, and to a lesser extent in the 1960s, when activists on the¬†far right¬†of American politics routinely opposed¬†public health¬†programs, notably¬†water fluoridation, mass¬†vaccination¬†and¬†mental health¬†services, by asserting they were all part of a far-reaching plot to impose a socialist or communist regime.[87]¬†Their views were influenced by opposition to a number of major social and political changes that had happened in recent years: the growth of¬†internationalism, particularly the¬†United Nations¬†and its programs; the introduction of social¬†welfare¬†provisions, particularly the various programs established by the¬†New Deal; and government efforts to reduce inequalities in the¬†social structure of the U.S.[88]¬†Opposition towards mass vaccinations in particular got significant attention in the late 2010s, so much so the¬†World Health Organization¬†listed¬†vaccine hesitancy¬†as one of the top ten global health threats of 2019. By this time, people that refused or refused to allow their children to be vaccinated were known colloquially as “anti-vaxxers”, though citing the New World Order conspiracy theory or resistance to a perceived population control plan as a reason to refuse vaccination were few and far between.[89][90]

Mind control

Social critics accuse governments, corporations, and the¬†mass media¬†of being involved in the¬†manufacturing of a national consensus¬†and, paradoxically, a¬†culture of fear¬†due to the potential for increased¬†social control¬†that a mistrustful and mutually fearing population might offer to those in power. The worst fear of some conspiracy theorists, however, is that the New World Order will be implemented through the use of¬†mind control‚ÄĒa broad range of tactics able to subvert an individual’s control of their own thinking, behavior, emotions, or decisions. These tactics are said to include everything from¬†Manchurian candidate-style¬†brainwashing¬†of¬†sleeper agents¬†(Project MKULTRA, “Project Monarch”) to engineering¬†psychological operations¬†(water fluoridation,¬†subliminal advertising, “Silent Sound Spread Spectrum”,¬†MEDUSA) and¬†parapsychological¬†operations (Stargate Project) to influence the masses.[91]¬†The concept of wearing a¬†tin foil hat¬†for protection from such threats has become a popular stereotype and term of derision; the phrase serves as a byword for¬†paranoia¬†and is associated with conspiracy theorists.

Skeptics argue that the paranoia behind a conspiracy theorist’s obsession with¬†mind control,¬†population control,¬†occultism,¬†surveillance abuse,¬†Big Business,¬†Big Government, and¬†globalization¬†arises from a combination of two factors, when he or she: 1) holds strong¬†individualist¬†values and 2) lacks¬†power. The first attribute refers to people who care deeply about an individual’s right to make their own choices and direct their own lives without interference or obligations to a larger system (like the government), but combine this with a sense of powerlessness in one’s own life. One gets what some psychologists call “agency¬†panic,” intense anxiety about an apparent loss of autonomy to outside forces or regulators. When fervent individualists feel that they cannot exercise their independence, they experience a crisis and assume that larger forces are to blame for usurping this freedom.[92][93]

Alleged conspirators

According to Domhoff, many people seem to believe that the United States is ruled from behind the scenes by a conspiratorial elite with secret desires, i.e., by a small, secretive group that wants to change the government system or put the country under the control of a world government. In the past, the conspirators were usually said to be crypto-communists who were intent upon bringing the United States under a common world government with the Soviet Union, but the dissolution of the USSR in 1991 undercut that theory. Domhoff notes that most conspiracy theorists changed their focus to the United Nations as the likely controlling force in a New World Order, an idea which is undermined by the powerlessness of the U.N. and the unwillingness of even moderates within the American Establishment to give it anything but a limited role.[57]

Although skeptical of New World Order conspiracism, political scientist¬†David Rothkopf¬†argues, in the 2008 book¬†Superclass: The Global Power Elite and the World They Are Making, that the world population of 6 billion people is governed by an elite of 6,000 individuals. Until the late 20th century, governments of the¬†great powers¬†provided most of the superclass, accompanied by a few heads of international movements (i.e., the¬†Pope¬†of the¬†Catholic Church) and entrepreneurs (Rothschilds,¬†Rockefellers). According to Rothkopf, in the early 21st century, economic clout‚ÄĒfueled by the explosive expansion of international trade, travel, and communication‚ÄĒrules; the¬†nation-state’s power has diminished shrinking politicians to minority¬†power broker¬†status; leaders in international business, finance, and the defense industry not only dominate the superclass, but they also move freely into high positions in their nations’ governments and back to private life largely beyond the notice of elected legislatures (including the U.S. Congress), which remain abysmally ignorant of affairs beyond their borders. He asserts that the superclass’ disproportionate influence over national policy is constructive but always self-interested and that across the world, few object to corruption and oppressive governments provided they can do business in these countries.[94]

Viewing the history of the world as the history of warfare between¬†secret societies, conspiracy theorists go further than Rothkopf, and other scholars who have studied the global¬†power elite, by claiming that established upper-class families with “old money” who founded and finance the¬†Bilderberg Group,¬†Bohemian Club,¬†Club of Rome,¬†Council on Foreign Relations,¬†Rhodes Trust,¬†Skull and Bones,¬†Trilateral Commission, and similar think tanks and private clubs, are¬†illuminated¬†conspirators plotting to impose a¬†totalitarian¬†New World Order‚ÄĒthe implementation of an¬†authoritarian¬†world government controlled by the United Nations and a¬†global central bank, which maintains political power through the¬†financialization of the economy, regulation and restriction of¬†speech¬†through the¬†concentration of media ownership,¬†mass surveillance, widespread use of¬†state terrorism, and an all-encompassing¬†propaganda¬†that creates a¬†cult of personality¬†around a puppet world leader and¬†ideologizes¬†world government as the¬†culmination of history’s progress.[6]

8 Comments

  1. Let's just call me S.A.M. (Secret Agent "Mike")

    Every week, sightedmoon hosts a zoom meeting with a meeting ID of 350 585 5877. If one were to look up the meaning of “ID” in a Merriam-Webster Dictionary, they would find the following:

    ID: “the one of the three divisions of the psyche in psychoanalytic theory that is completely unconscious and is the source of psychic energy derived from instinctual needs and drives.”

    So, this clearly shows us that we should take the “three divisions of the numbers” 350 585 5877 and combine them into “one” single integer of 3505855877 !!!

    With this knowledge, one immediately can see that 3505855877 is NOT a prime number at all, but rather a product of TWO, yes TWO, prime numbers instead (one can further research these prime numbers, 153409 and 22853, by dividing them into the grand number of 2,334,900,014,082 for even more shocking results). With simple transcendence of facts, one can easily see that this two factor identification (yes, there’s that “ID” a second time) represents TWO hands shaking.

    Can you see it yet?

    The key is in the non-zero individual digits of 3505855877 itself! Sometimes, these “ZOOM” meetings can last as much as 3 hours, 5 hours, and sometimes they have been known to still be talking 7 and 8 hours later !!! And, if one is willing to attend ALL of those strenuous hours, one may… or may not… notice and recognize a secret handshake taking place.

    (note: don’t bother trying to find this secret handshake in the YouTube “reproductions” of the meetings, as I’m certain that if it is there, then it has been carefully and seamlessly edited out – you are just going to have to “trust me” that it’s there, or join the meeting and prove it for yourself.)

    Reply
  2. Bev

    Interested in more

    Reply
    • Mike

      At the top of the sightedmoon screen, click on “Library Archives” and then the first option of “Newsletter Archives”:

      As an example, a search for “conspiracy” on this page will list articles such as this one:
      https://sightedmoon.com/conspiracy-porn/
      (try searching for some very interesting articles by entering “mark of the beast”)

      For a more topical list of archives, click on “Library Archives” and select “Article Archives” instead.

      Reply
  3. Glenn L Caron

    I have agreed with you for some time about keeping theories out of the SABBATH zoom meetings and we have had our disussions and private arguments that culminatted in some heated words but in the end we still come together as bothers In YAH.These theories do not edify anyone and IS taking up subject matter and time on the Lords day which should be focused on HIM and HIs word. Agree 100% . I also agree that at other times ,balance in spending that time on these potential rabbit trails that eat up what little time we have left is a good message to remember when we go dive into them. We should be spending MORE time on Torah and learning the foundation of His WORD and WILL. I agree with all of that but You have just wasted a perfectly good Newsletter on the same stuff you wont discuss on ZOOM , WHY ? Either Talk about it somewhere else at an appropriate time where all can have equal discussions or dont discuss it at ALL!.I really dislike it when you say NO discussion then you talk about it here. You cannot have it all ONE WAY and expect to keep a varied audience of beleivers who may have their own perspective and knowledge of these things where only YOU get to talk, you dont own the facts ! Please stop doing that , I want to go back to the REAL torah truth and stop talking about things that may or may not be true and call it All theory esp when you use slanted commentary from sponsored sources to back your opinion … you do not know for sure what is the truth regarding . those issues and “Theories” , only YAH does . That is the problem we dont KNOW what is true or not in this endtime , it was prophesied to be this way “Dan 8:12…truth is dashed to the ground….”(GNB Isaiah 59:14)¬† Justice is driven away, and right cannot come near. Truth stumbles in the public square, and honesty finds no place there.
    Please, DO what you preach STICK to TORAH all the time .. or don’t but please dont straddlle the middle with just your rules which excludes our POV…. its not fair.”Rules for thee but not for me” doesnt work well here as you know. People come here for facts and study and to air their questions and to have equal time discussions with genuine people . The equal time discussion part is the key ! And hopefully, with Yahs spirit, they come away with THE TRUTH !.Thank you for your efforts at speaking the truth ! . May Yah bless you and keep you spreading the TRUTH of TORAH!
    Joh_14:6  Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.
    He is the Living Torah(WAY) and the TRUTH and the life! HE , the Living TORAH is the TRUTH ! We need to know HIM! Its All about priorities.

    Reply
    • Mike

      Hebrews 5:12
      For when for the time ye ought to be teachers, ye have need that one teach you again which be the first principles of the oracles of God; and are become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat.

      I have no doubt that Joe will allow readers of this newsletter to write up a sound teaching for a future newsletter. I know this because I have written a few, and produced quite a few other scripture lessons published by sightedmoon. I can also say that it takes many, many hours of study and research, and then review to make sure the teaching is accurate. It’s a #%&@load of work. So, I don’t have any problem with Joe producing a quick encyclopedia style cut & paste style of newsletter from time to time to educate the readers on an obscure matter at hand that the group as a whole might be dealing with.

      As for the zoom meetings, well… they are a great place to share and connect, but those can be a lot of off-the-topic talk at times, as people are very encouraged to speak up. This is both good and bad, as talk is easy — no scripture study required. It’s not like hard researching a topic and putting your dissertation down in writing as a well formed thesis. Often, such easy talk go on and on and on… and I completely understand that some popular, but stupid, subjects can inspire a lot of stupid talk. That kind of talk is a waste of time, so I find this newsletter very appropriate. To be quite blunt, I’ve often logged off the zoom calls when someone is going down some stupid rabbit trail and either logged back in later or just caught back up via the YouTube recording. Be glad that Joe doesn’t just say #%&@ it and go away for a bit like I do. Putting out a newsletter like this is how he deals with that frustration, I think.

      So, I’m glad he put out this newsletter… he could have just taken a week off and spent more time with his own family. I respect the sacrifice.

      Reply
  4. Bob Barth

    Professing to be wise they became fools seems to be the norm. Just like adding ‚Äúa few million years ago‚ÄĚ to ‚Äúevolution theory‚ÄĚ is somehow proof of the ‚Äúscientific facts‚ÄĚ. I am so very thankful Yehovah has been revelatory through His people, not to mention lifting veils through faith filled obedience to Torah proving His complete control! The assurance, the peace that passes understanding, the truth and proof of His word in these unsure times is so powerful coming to folk who are labeled with insecurities and confusion as I once was! We owe a debt of gratitude to those who have come before us and now are His revelatory spokesmen through obedience and faith. Praise, honor and glory to Yehova for His unceasing love and guidance!

    Reply

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