News Letter 5847-020
28th day of the 4th month 5847 years after the creation of Adam
The 4th Month in the Second year of the third Sabbatical Cycle
The Third Sabbatical Cycle of the 119th Jubilee Cycle
The Sabbatical Cycle of Earthquakes Famines, and Pestilences.
July 30, 2011
Shabbat Shalom Brethren,
Judah has made Ephraim more righteous by all her abominations. Follow Judah’s way if you dare!!!! Well you fast on the 9th of Av?
Eze 16:51 “And Shomeron did not commit half of your sins, but you have increased your abominations more than they, and by all the abominations which you have done you made your sisters seem righteous!
How was this done? In part by adding to the Torah what was not there and making it a part of the Torah. Today this has much to do with the additions that the Talmud and Mishnah make. Again these are some of the differences between the house of Shammai who tended to be more literalist and the house of Hillel who tended more towards the Oral law and liberal understandings. By the fall of the second temple the House of Hillel was the dominant body.
We will get back to this and show you more about this in a bit.
We are about to begin the 5th month. With each new moon sighting go out with your spouse and children and see who can sight the New Crescent moon first. Before you do this, predict at what time it will be seen. Even predict what day. Will it be the 29th day or the 30th day of the month? Make a contest amongst your own family and learn a valuable lesson at the same time.
That lesson comes into play for the Feast of Trumpets which is the feast on the 1st day of the Seventh Month. This feast represents the day Yehshua comes to rescue His bride and put to an end the rule of Satan who has ruled these past 5847 years or there about.
Mat 24:36 “But concerning that day and the hour no one knows, not even the messengers of the heavens, but My Father only.1 Footnote:1Mk. 13:32. We discuss this more in the study this week in John when our Father sends the groom having finished building the home for His bride.
By looking for the sighted moon each month we reinforce and then realize what Yehshua was telling us. No one can know the day of the hour the moon is sighted except the Father in Heaven. And that moon being sighted is important for only one Feast of the whole year; The Feast of Yom Teruah; The Feast of Shouting; The Feast of Trumpets. All of which depict the triumphant return of the Messiah on this very day; a day no man can know until the very moment the moon is sighted.
So go out and practice with your family.
Saturday Night will be the start of the 29th day. Look for the moon and see if it is there or not. If not go out the next night.
We are now about to begin the 5th month. This means we only have 2 ½ months until the Feast of Tabernacles. If you are planning on joining us for Sukkot in Jerusalem this year, we need to know ASAP. A great deal of work has taken place in reserving and locking down the rooms we have set aside for our group. This has been a small miracle with the short amount of time we had to do this. But now we must commit or we will have to release the rooms back to the Hotel. We need you also to commit ASAP in order to have a room. I have just received this notice from Avi.
Concerning Sukkot 2011 at Ramat Rachel, Jerusalem: we heard from the hotel management that due to the upcoming Sukkot “high season,” we MUST confirm our booking with them by August 15. Therefore, if you are thinking about coming on the Sukkot 2011 program with us, please register NOW. IF we are forced to cancel the program due to a lack of meeting the minimum number of particpants required to go forward at Ramat Rachel, we are making a stated PROMISE to refund your full deposit and to make sure that there is an alternative plan in place for you. PLEASE REGISTER between NOW and August 15, 2011 at the following link:
This is very, very important that you do not delay.
Shalom from Jerusalem
Once you have filled in the form, press save and then you will need to attach this saved form to an email and send it to Avi. For those of you who are computer technology challenged. You can write an email with this information in it and send it to Avi. But please let us know you are committed to come for Sukkot.
The Coming Home Study Tour; http://www.cominghome.co.il/tours/sukkot/sukkot_1.html
To view the itinerary you can go to http://www.cominghome.co.il/tours/sukkot/Sukkot_Program_2011.pdf
In our mail this week we had a few notes.
Shalom Bro. Joseph
I am taking your up on the 10% of my monthly income! I hope it will help with the farm in Israel! I am believing in Go!
Hi Joseph, Shalom I continue to find the newsletters very informative. I look forward to receiving them each week, and reading them as part of my Sabbath activities. I am sending a small free will offering for the farm project. This has been on my mind for some time and I have put it off…..
Here I send you some money for the project Israel or Jordan Farm. I love your teachings, they are true eyes openers. I am sorry if my English is not so good, I speak Dutch in my country. It s very necessary to by Farms to provide for the Brothers and sisters in Yahusuyah Ha Massiach. I feel that I am a 10 Triber from the Northern House of Israel. I try to keep the commandments in Leviticus 23, The Holidays of The (LORD) Yahuwah.
We are going to enter very difficult time so we need to be wise, like the parable of the 5 wise women and the 5 foolish woman. Who have no eyes or ears to see what the Torah said and the Prophets, see Daniel 12:1 and Daniel 12:9-10.
So Joseph be Blessed by Yahuyah Treu His Son Yahusuyah Ha MAssiach.
I thank each and every one who has donated to the Farm in Israel and taken me up on the one year challenge. May Yehovah bless each and every one of you in more ways than you can count as you follow and study His word. When you do send a donation please include your email address.
We have had people give as much as $4000 and others have given as much as $5. Each and every one has given of what they could to make this a reality. No amount is too little and we know Yehovah notices this by the example of the widows Mite.
I also know that the USA is in serious trouble financially. We have been saying this since 2005 and you can verify it in the DVD. And those in the USA are struggling to donate. Those of you in other countries around the world who are interested in the Farms being purchased do need to step forward. I am not a professional marketer or fund raiser. I am just a ditch digger. So I ask the best I know how and hope you will also see what I see and respond in kind. Do not worry about the currency of your country. If you want to send please do and make a money order or cheque made out to Joseph F Dumond and you can send it to 14 Willow Cres. Orangeville Ontario Canada. L9V 1A5. If you want to use PayPal then write me and I will tell you how to do this.
But we have been telling you for years the Finances of the USA were in trouble and we showed you why in the DVD. It is even bigger than I had said. There are so many things that the Prophecies in the Jubilee have shown me, as well as the Prophecies of Abraham which I have been sharing with you all. Each confirmation scares me even more as I realize with more and more conviction each day just how close we are to a war in which the mighty US Army and the Allies of Canada UK and Australia will all be defeated in battle by 2020; Just 8 ½ years from now. Just 8 and one half years. Think about it ; Especially as we consider the 9th of Av.
Again Brethren the clock continues to tick. We have very little time to make this farm happen.
We read in Proverbs 31 about the woman who goes out to buy a field to feed and clothe her children. She does this on her own without bothering her husband.
That woman brethren is us, the bride of Israel and we are the ones who are to buy this field or this farm to provide for our children. We do this with the blessing of our groom Yehshua.
Go back and watch the video: The Prophesies of Abraham and count how many of the things that I said were going to come have already come. Go and re read The Prophecies of Abraham and again count how many of those events in the book have already taken place and are at this very moment happening on the world scene.
And when you do this, then ask; if these things have come to pass as Yehovah has said then the odds dictate that this war is also going to come on schedule and no matter what you say or think, It will come.
When it does where should you be?
Help us to make this farm happen. I know all the excuses why it can’t work. Yes I have read all those emails. But I also know Yehovah has said the 390 year X 7 curse on the 10 Tribes is over in 2010. So somehow He will open a door for us, but we have to be ready to go when it opens.
How many times do we read over scriptures and not pay attention? How many times do we not think when we read nor ask questions? How many times have we just assumed something was right only later to learn it was not?
Let’s read 2 Kings 25 as we come towards the 9th of Av when the Temple of Solomon was destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BC.
2-Kings 25: The Fall of the First Temple.
Significance of this day.
[2-Kings 25:1] Now it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came against Jerusalem and encamped against it; and they built a siege wall against it all around.
[2-Kings 25:2] So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah.
[2-Kings 25:3] By the ninth day of the fourth month the famine had become so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land.
The city was besieged for 3 (9th year) plus 12 (10th year) plus 3 (11th year) for ca. 18 months. The city held out almost as long as there was food. When the supply of food ended and had been entirely consumed the wall was broken. It is as if the will of the metropolis had been broken by famine and then the enemy was enabled to break in.
[2-Kings 25:4] Then the city wall was broken through, and all the men of war fled at night by way of the gate between two walls, which was by the king’s garden, even though the Chaldeans were still encamped all around against the city. And the king went by way of the plain.
Chaldeans: This is the Greek rendition of the name. In Hebrew it is Casdim. We have spoken of them above.
27 This is the genealogy of Terah: Terah begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran…Chesed (from whom came the Casdim) was the son of Nahor (Genesis 22:22). He was therefore the nephew of Abraham.
Chaldean, or Casdi, is another term for Babylonian.
[2-Kings 25:5] But the army of the Chaldeans pursued the king, and they overtook him in the plains of Jericho. All his army was scattered from him.
[2-Kings 25:6] So they took the king and brought him up to the king of Babylon at Riblah, and they pronounced judgment on him.
[2-Kings 25:7] Then they killed the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, put out the eyes of Zedekiah, bound him with bronze fetters, and took him to Babylon.
[2-Kings 25:8] And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month (which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon), Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem.
# the captain of the guard # In Hebrew “rav-tabachim” literally the Chief Executioner.
[2-Kings 25:9] He burned the house of the LORD and the king’s house; all the houses of Jerusalem, that is, all the houses of the great, he burned with fire.
[2-Kings 25:10] And all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls of Jerusalem all around.
[2-Kings 25:11] Then Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away captive the rest of the people who remained in the city and the defectors who had deserted to the king of Babylon, with the rest of the multitude.
[2-Kings 25:12] But the captain of the guard left some of the poor of the land as vinedressers and farmers.
The word translated as “farmers” in Hebrew is “yogvim” which is understood to mean growers of cereal crops.
[2-Kings 25:13] The bronze pillars that were in the house of the LORD, and the carts and the bronze Sea that were in the house of the LORD, the Chaldeans broke in pieces, and carried their bronze to Babylon.
The word translated as bronze in Hebrew is “nechoshet”. In Modern Hebrew this word is understood as meaning copper. In Biblical terms it meant “bronze” which is an alloy of copper and tin.In some cases however it may mean brass which is an alloy of copper and zinc. Most tin in the ancient world came from Britain though some came also
from Spain and from the Erzebirge region on the border of Germany and Czechia.
[2-Kings 25:14] They also took away the pots, the shovels, the trimmers, the spoons, and all the bronze utensils with which the priests ministered.
[2-Kings 25:15] The firepans and the basins, the things of solid gold and solid silver, the captain of the guard took away.
These objects were valued not only due to their intrinsic value but also because of their association with the Temple of Solomon whose fame had spread to all the world.
[2-Kings 25:16] The two pillars, one Sea, and the carts, which Solomon had made for the house of the LORD, the bronze of all these articles was beyond measure.
[2-Kings 25:17] The height of one pillar was eighteen cubits, and the capital on it was of bronze. The height of the capital was three cubits, and the network and pomegranates all around the capital were all of bronze. The second pillar was the same, with a network.
Significance of this day.
It is perhaps of interest that this posting was sent out on 19 July 2011, 17 Tammuz 5771.This in the Jewish Religion is a Fast Day.
Seventeenth of Tammuz
On this day Jews mourn several events of the past. Amongst these events was the breaching of the Walls of Jerusalem in Second Temple Times (ca. 70 CE) whereas the walls of Jerusalemin the First Temple Era which is what our passage deals with as related above were broken on the ninth day [2-Kings 25:3].Nevertheless we mourn the breaching of the Walls of Jerusalem for both periods on this day.
This day begins a three week period of mourning for the Temple in Jewish Tradition.
So did you see it? Did you catch what was not said but what was surely implied? Read it again and see if you understand this time.
[2-Kings 25:1] Now it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came against Jerusalem and encamped against it; and they built a siege wall against it all around.
[2-Kings 25:2] So the city was besieged until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah.
[2-Kings 25:3] By the ninth day of the fourth month the famine had become so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land.
The city was besieged for 3 (9th year) plus 12 (10th year) plus 3 (11th year) for ca. 18 months. The city held out almost as long as there was food. When the supply of food ended and had been entirely consumed the wall was broken. It is as if the will of the metropolis had been broken by famine and then the enemy was enabled to break in.
Jerusalem fell in 586 BC. This was the eleventh year of Zedikiah. 586 BC just so happens to be the 3rd year of the third Sabbatical cycle. This means that the 10th year during the siege was the 2nd year of Sabbatical cycle and the 9th year of Zedkiah`s reign was the first year of siege and the first year of this third Sabbatical cycle.
Now note that it was in the tenth month, on the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon and all his army came against Jerusalem.
The year before this year was a Sabbatical year. The year began and ended at Avi. So this Sabbatical year would have begun at Avi in 589 BC and ended at Avi in 588 BC which was Zedekiah’s 9th year. Planting would not take place until after Sukkot in the 7th month and then Comes Nebuchadnezzar.
By the ninth day of the fourth month the famine had become so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land. And now you know why. The Sabbatical year had been kept and they could not plant until the fall of the same year just before the Babylonians came and set up siege works all around Jerusalem. They rationed the food and lasted until the fourth month of the third year which was the year of 586 BC.
Nebuchadnezzar had planned on Judah keeping this law of the Sabbatical year, and attacked just as they were planting the next year’s crops. This is why the famine was so great.
Now the other question is this. It says in 2 Chronicles 36 that Zedekiah did evil and trespassed more and more.
2Ch 36:11 Tsid?qiyahu was twenty-one years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Yerushalayim. 12 And he did evil in the eyes of ???? his Elohim. He did not humble himself before Yirmeyahu the prophet, who spoke from the mouth of ????. 13 And he also rebelled against Sovereign Neb?uk?ad?netstsar, who had made him swear by Elohim, but he stiffened his neck and hardened his heart against turning to ???? Elohim of Yisra’?l. 14 Also, all the heads of the priests and the people trespassed more and more, according to all the abominations of the gentiles, and they defiled the House of ???? which He had set apart in Yerushalayim. 15 And ???? Elohim of their fathers sent to them, by His messengers, rising up early and sending them, for He had compassion on His people and on His dwelling place. 16 But they were mocking the messengers of Elohim and despising His words and scoffing at His prophets, until the wrath of ???? arose against His people, until there was no healing. 17 Therefore He brought against them the sovereign of the Chaldeans, and he slew their young men with the sword in the House of their set-apart place, and had no compassion on young man or maiden, on the aged or the weak – He gave all into his hand. 18 And all the utensils from the House of Elohim, great and small, and the treasures of the House of ????, and the treasures of the sovereign and of his leaders, all these he brought to Bab?el. 19 And they burned the House of Elohim, and broke down the wall of Yerushalayim, and burned all its palaces with fire, and destroyed all its valuable utensils. 20 And those who escaped from the sword he exiled to Bab?el, where they became servants to him and his sons until the reign of the reign of Persia,21 in order to fill the word of ???? by the mouth of Yirmeyahu, until the land had enjoyed her Sabbaths. As long as she lay waste she kept Sabbath, until seventy years were completed.
Then by this statement we should conclude that Zedekiah did not keep the Sabbatical year just before the fall of Jerusalem. In fact if we count the 70 Land Sabbaths from this date we would see that they never kept the Sabbatical year or the Jubilee year going back at least, at least as far back as the reign of King David. If they did keep some of them on occasion then this 70 Sabbatical years would take you back to the time shortly after Joshua.
Brethren this was the study I began last week thinking I had found something, only to conclude I had not found anything. I still share it with you so that you too will know this historic event that concludes according to Josephus on this 5th month.
Captivity of Ten Tribes to First Year of Cyrus
King of Babylon takes Jerusalem, burns and pillages the temple.
Zedekiah taken captive to Babylon
1. NOW the King of Babylon was very intent and earnest upon the siege of Jerusalem; and he erected towers upon great banks of earth, and from them repelled those that stood upon the walls; he also made a great number of such banks round about the whole city, whose height was equal to those walls. However, those that were within bore the siege with courage and alacrity, for they were not discouraged, either by the famine, or by the pestilential distemper, but were of cheerful minds in the prosecution of the war, although those miseries within oppressed them also, and they did not suffer themselves to be terrified, either by the contrivances of the enemy, or by their engines of war, but contrived still different engines to oppose all the other withal, till indeed there seemed to be an entire struggle between the Babylonians and the people of Jerusalem, which had the greater sagacity and skill; the former party supposing they should be thereby too hard for the other, for the destruction of the city; the latter placing their hopes of deliverance in nothing else but in persevering in such inventions in opposition to the other, as might demonstrate the enemy’s engines were useless to them. And this siege they endured for eighteen months, until they were destroyed by the famine, and by the darts which the enemy threw at them from the towers.
2. Now the city was taken on the ninth day of the fourth month, in the eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah. They were indeed only generals of the King of Babylon, to whom Nebuchadnezzar committed the care of the siege, for he abode himself in the city of Riblah. The names of these generals who ravaged and subdued Jerusalem, if any one desire to know them, were these: Nergal Sharezer, Samgar Nebo, Rabsaris, Sorsechim, and Rabmag. And when the city was taken about midnight, and the enemy’s generals were entered into the temple, and when Zedekiah was sensible of it, he took his wives, and his children, and his captains, and his friends, and with them fled out of the city, through the fortified ditch, and through the desert; and when certain of the deserters had informed the Babylonians of this, at break of day, they made haste to pursue after Zedekiah, and overtook him not far from Jericho, and encompassed him about. But for those friends and captains of Zedekiah who had fled out of the city with him, when they saw their enemies near them, they left him, and dispersed themselves, some one way, and some another, and every one resolved to save himself; so the enemy took Zedekiah alive, when he was deserted by all but a few, with his children and his wives, and brought him to the king.
When he was come, Nebuchadnezzar began to call him a wicked wretch, and a covenant-breaker, and one that had forgotten his former words, when he promised to keep the country for him. He also reproached him for his ingratitude, that when he had received the kingdom from him, who had taken it from Jehoiachin, and given it to him, he had made use of the power he gave him against him that gave it; “but,” said he, “God is great, who hated that conduct of thine, and hath brought thee under us.”
And when he had used these words to Zedekiah, he commanded his sons and his friends to be slain, while Zedekiah and the rest of the captains looked on; after which he put out the eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him, and carried him to Babylon. And these things happened to him, (14) as Jeremiah and Ezekiel had foretold to him, that he should be caught, and brought before the King of Babylon, and should speak to him face to face, and should see his eyes with his own eyes; and thus far did Jeremiah prophesy. But he was also made blind, and brought to Babylon, but did not see it, according to the prediction of Ezekiel.
5. And now it was that the King of Babylon sent Nebuzaradan, the general of his army, to Jerusalem, to pillage the temple, who had it also in command to burn it and the royal palace, and to lay the city even with the ground, and to transplant the people into Babylon. Accordingly, he came to Jerusalem in the eleventh year of King Zedekiah, and pillaged the temple, and carried out the vessels of God, both gold and silver, and particularly that large laver which Solomon dedicated, as also the pillars of brass, and their chapiters, with the golden tables and the candlesticks; and when he had carried these off, he set fire to the temple in the fifth month, the first day of the month, in the eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah, and in the eighteenth year of Nebuchadnezzar: he also burnt the palace, and overthrew the city.
Josephus says; the city was taken on the ninth day of the fourth month
Nebuzaradan, the general, he set fire to the temple in the fifth month, the first day of the month, in the eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah
2 Kings Says; 2Ki 25:8 And in the fifth month, on the seventh of the month, which was the nineteenth year of Sovereign Neb?uk?ad?netstsar sovereign of Bab?el, Neb?uzarad?an the chief of the guard, a servant of the sovereign of Bab?el, came to Yerushalayim.9 And he burned the House of ???? and the house of the sovereign, and all the houses of Yerushalayim – even every great house he burned with fire.
Jeremiah says;Jer 52:12 And on the tenth of the fifth month, which was the nineteenth year of sovereign Neb?uk?ad?retstsar sovereign of Bab?el, Neb?uzarad?an, chief of the guard, who served the sovereign of Bab?el, came to Yerushalayim, 13 and he burned the House of ????, and the sovereign’s house, and all the houses of Yerushalayim, and all the houses of the great men, he burned with fire.14 And all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the chief of the guard broke down all the walls of Yerushalayim all around.
Five misfortunes befell our fathers … on the ninth of Av. …On the ninth of Av it was decreed that our fathers should not enter the [Promised] Land, the Temple was destroyed the first and second time, Bethar was captured and the city [Jerusalem] was ploughed up. -Mishnah Ta’anit 4:6
…Should I weep in the fifth month [Av], separating myself, as I have done these so many years? -Zechariah 7:3
In the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month …came Nebuzaradan … and he burnt the house of the L-RD… -II Kings 25:8-9
In the fifth month, on the tenth day of the month… came Nebuzaradan … and he burnt the house of the L-RD… – Jeremiah 52:12-13
How then are these dates to be reconciled? On the seventh the heathens entered the Temple and ate therein and desecrated it throughout the seventh and eighth and towards dusk of the ninth they set fire to it and it continued to burn the whole of that day. … How will the Rabbis then [explain the choice of the 9th as the date]? The beginning of any misfortune [when the fire was set] is of greater moment. -Talmud Ta’anit 29a
Tisha B’Av, the Fast of the Ninth of Av, is a day of mourning to commemorate the many tragedies that have befallen the Jewish people, many of which coincidentally have occurred on the ninth of Av.
Tisha B’Av means “the ninth (day) of Av.” It usually occurs during August.
Tisha B’Av primarily commemorates the destruction of the first and second Temples, both of which were destroyed on the ninth of Av (the first by the Babylonians in 586 B.C.E.; the second by the Romans in 70 C.E.).
Although this holiday is primarily meant to commemorate the destruction of the Temple, it is appropriate to consider on this day the many other tragedies of the Jewish people, many of which occurred on this day, most notably the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492.1
Tisha B’Av is the culmination of a three week period of increasing mourning, beginning with the fast of the 17th of Tammuz, which commemorates the first breach in the walls of Jerusalem, before the First Temple was destroyed. During this three week period, weddings and other parties are not permitted, and people refrain from cutting their hair. From the first to the ninth of Av, it is customary to refrain from eating meat or drinking wine (except on the Shabbat) and from wearing new clothing.
The restrictions on Tisha B’Av are similar to those on Yom Kippur: to refrain from eating and drinking (even water); washing, bathing, shaving or wearing cosmetics; wearing leather shoes; engaging in sexual relations; and studying Torah. Work in the ordinary sense of the word [rather than the Shabbat sense] is also restricted. People who are ill need not fast on this day. Many of the traditional mourning practices are observed: people refrain from smiles, laughter and idle conversation, and sit on low stools.
In synagogue, the book of Lamentations is read and mourning prayers are recited. The ark (cabinet where the Torah is kept) is draped in black.
List of Dates
Tisha B’Av will occur on the following days of the Gregorian calendar:
• Jewish Year 5770: sunset July 19, 2010 – nightfall July 20, 2010
• Jewish Year 5771: sunset August 8, 2011 – nightfall August 9, 2011
• Jewish Year 5772: sunset July 27, 2012 – nightfall July 28, 2012
• Jewish Year 5773: sunset July 15, 2013 – nightfall July 16, 2013
• Jewish Year 5774: sunset August 4, 2014 – nightfall August 5, 2014
1. The Alhambra Decree, issued March 31, 1492, ordered all Jews to leave Spain by the end of July 1492. July 31, 1492 was Tisha B’Av. Note that if you use a Jewish calendar converter to check this, it may show July 31 as the 27th of Tammuz. If so, the converter has failed to take into account the Gregorian Reformation, which skipped 11 days on the calendar. If you add the 11 missing days and convert August 11 instead of July 31, you will see that “August 11” 1492 is 9 Av.
Did you notice what the article above said about Tisha B’Av. That the restrictions are similar to those on Yom Kippur! This mixing of the seed. This is why Judah suffers today from all the attacks. She has added to the Torah a command and made it similar to those in Lev 23.
Here is the original story of the first Ninth of Av
Num 13:1 And ???? spoke to Mosheh, saying, 2 “Send men to spy out the land of Kena?an, which I am giving to the children of Yisra’?l. Send one man from each tribe of their fathers, every one a leader among them.” 3 And by the command of ???? Mosheh sent them from the Wilderness of Paran, all of them men who were heads of the children of Yisra’?l. 4 And these were their names. From the tribe of Re’ub??n: Shammua, son of Zakkur. 5 From the tribe of Shim?on: Shaphat, son of H?ori. 6 From the tribe of Yehud?ah: Kal?b?, son of Yephunneh. 7 From the tribe of Yissask?ar: Yig?’al, son of Yos?ph. 8 From the tribe of Ephrayim: Hosh?a, son of Nun. 9 From the tribe of Binyamin: Palti, son of Raphu. 10 From the tribe of Zeb?ulun: Gaddi’?l, son of Sod?i. 11 From the tribe of Yos?ph, from the tribe of Menashsheh: Gaddi, son of Susi. 12 From the tribe of Dan: Ammi’?l, son of Gemalli. 13 From the tribe of Ash?r: Sh?thur, son of Mik?a’?l. 14 From the tribe of Naphtali: Nah?bi, son of Wophsi. 15 From the tribe of Gad?: Geu’?l, son of Mak?i. 16 These are the names of the men whom Mosheh sent to spy out the land. And Mosheh called Hosh?a the son of Nun, Yehoshua. 17 And Mosheh sent them to spy out the land of Kena?an, and said to them, “Go up here into the South, and go up to the mountains, 18 and see what the land is like, and the people who dwell in it, whether strong or weak, whether few or many, 19 and whether the land they dwell in is good or evil, whether the cities they inhabit are in camps or strongholds, 20 and whether the land is rich or poor, and whether there are forests there or not. And you shall be strong, and bring some of the fruit of the land.” Now the time was the season of the first-fruits of grapes. 21 So they went up and spied out the land from the Wilderness of Tsin as far as Reh?ob?, near the entrance of H?amath. 22 And they went up through the South and came to H?eb?ron. And Ah?iman, Sh?shai, and Talmai, the descendants of Anaq, were there. Now H?eb?ron had been built seven years before Tso?an in Mitsrayim. 23 And they came to the wadi Eshkol, and cut down from there a branch with one cluster of grapes. And they bore it between two of them on a pole, also of the pomegranates and of the figs. 24 That place was called the wadi Eshkol, because of the cluster which the men of Yisra’?l cut down from there. 25 And they returned from spying out the land after forty days. 26 And they went and came to Mosheh and Aharon and all the congregation of the children of Yisra’?l in the Wilderness of Paran, at Qad??sh. And they brought back word to them and to all the congregation, and showed them the fruit of the land. 27 And they reported to him, and said, “We went to the land where you sent us. And truly, it flows with milk and honey, and this is its fruit. 28 “But the people who dwell in the land are strong, and the cities are walled, very great. And we saw the descendants of Anaq there too. 29 “The Amal?qites dwell in the land of the South, while the H?ittites and the Yeb?usites and the Amorites dwell in the mountains. And the Kena?anites dwell by the sea and along the banks of the Yard?n.” 30 And Kal?b? silenced the people before Mosheh, and said, “Let us go up at once and take possession, for we are certainly able to overcome it.” 31 But the men who had gone up with him said, “We are not able to go up against the people, for they are stronger than we.” 32 And they gave the children of Yisra’?l an evil report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we have gone as spies is a land eating up its inhabitants, and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size. 33 “And we saw there the Nephilim, sons of Anaq, of the Nephilim. And we were like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and so we were in their eyes.”
Num 14:1 Then all the congregation lifted up their voices and cried, and the people wept that night. 2 And all the children of Yisra’?l grumbled against Mosheh and against Aharon, and all the congregation said to them, “If only we had died in the land of Mitsrayim! Or if only we had died in this wilderness! 3 “And why is ???? bringing us to this land to fall by the sword, that our wives and children should become a prey? Would it not be better for us to turn back to Mitsrayim?” 4 And they said to each other, “Let us appoint a leader, and let us turn back to Mitsrayim.” 5 Then Mosheh and Aharon fell on their faces before all the assembly of the congregation of the children of Yisra’?l. 6 And Yehoshua son of Nun, and Kal?b? son of Yephunneh, who were among those who had spied out the land, tore their garments, 7 and they spoke to all the congregation of the children of Yisra’?l, saying, “The land we passed through to spy out is an exceedingly good land. 8 “If ???? has delighted in us, then He shall bring us into this land and give it to us, ‘a land which is flowing with milk and honey.’ 9 “Only, do not rebel against ????, nor fear the people of the land, for they are our bread. Their defence has turned away from them, and ???? is with us. Do not fear them.” 10 But all the congregation said to stone them with stones. Then the esteem of ???? appeared in the Tent of Meeting before all the children of Yisra’?l. 11 And ???? said to Mosheh, “How long shall I be scorned by these people? And how long shall I not be trusted by them, with all the signs which I have done in their midst? 12 “Let Me smite them with the pestilence and disinherit them, and make of you a nation greater and mightier than they.” 13 And Mosheh said to ????, “Then the Mitsrites shall hear it, for by Your power You brought these people up from their midst, 14 and they shall say to the inhabitants of this land they have heard that You, ????, are in the midst of these people, that You, ????, are seen eye to eye and that Your cloud stands above them, and You go before them in a column of cloud by day and in a column of fire by night. 15 “Now if You shall kill these people as one man, then the nations which have heard of Your report shall speak, saying, 16 ‘Because ???? was not able to bring this people to the land which He swore to give them, therefore He killed them in the wilderness.’ 17 “And now, I pray, let the power of ???? be great, as You have spoken, saying, 18 ‘???? is patient and of great kindness, forgiving crookedness and transgression, but by no means leaving unpunished1; visiting the crookedness of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generation.’ Footnote: 1This is confirmed in Ex. 34:7 and in Jer. 30:11. 19 “Please forgive the crookedness of this people, according to the greatness of Your kindness, as You have forgiven this people, from Mitsrayim even until now.”
20 And ???? said, “I shall forgive, according to your word, 21 but truly, as I live and all the earth is filled with the esteem of ????, 22 for none of these men who have seen My esteem and the signs which I did in Mitsrayim and in the wilderness, and have tried Me now these ten times, and have disobeyed My voice, 23 shall see the land of which I swore to their fathers, nor any of those who scorned Me see it. 24 “But My servant Kal?b?, because he has a different spirit in him and has followed Me completely, I shall bring into the land where he went, and his seed shall inherit it. 25 “Since the Amal?qites and the Kena?anites are dwelling in the valley, turn back tomorrow and set out into the wilderness by the Way of the Sea of Reeds.” 26 And ???? spoke to Mosheh, and to Aharon, saying, 27 “How long shall this evil congregation have this grumbling against Me? I have heard the grumblings which the children of Yisra’?l are grumbling against Me. 28 “Say to them, ‘As I live,’ declares ????, ‘as you have spoken in My hearing, so I do to you: 29 ‘The carcasses of you who have grumbled against Me are going to fall in this wilderness, all of you who were registered, according to your entire number, from twenty years old and above. 30 ‘None of you except Kal?b? son of Yephunneh, and Yehoshua son of Nun, shall enter the land which I swore I would make you dwell in. 31 ‘But your little ones, whom you said would become a prey, I shall bring in, and they shall know the land which you have rejected. 32 ‘But as for you, your carcasses are going to fall in this wilderness. 33 ‘And your sons shall be wanderers in the wilderness forty years, and shall bear your whorings, until your carcasses are consumed in the wilderness. 34 ‘According to the number of the days in which you spied out the land, forty days – a day for a year, a day for a year – you are to bear your crookednesses forty years, and you shall know My breaking off. 35 ‘I am ????, I have spoken, I shall do this to all this evil congregation who are meeting against Me: In this wilderness they are consumed, and there they die.’ ” 36 And the men whom Mosheh sent to spy out the land, who returned and made all the congregation grumble against him by bringing an evil report of the land, 37 even those men who brought the evil report about the land, died by the plague before ????. 38 Of those men who went to spy out the land, only Yehoshua son of Nun, and Kal?b? son of Yephunneh remained alive. 39 And when Mosheh spoke these words to all the children of Yisra’?l, the people mourned greatly. 40 And they rose up early in the morning and went up to the top of the mountain, saying, “See, we have indeed sinned, but we shall go up to the place which ???? had spoken of!” 41 But Mosheh said, “Why do you now transgress the command of ????, since it does not prosper? 42 “Do not go up, lest you be smitten by your enemies, for ???? is not in your midst. 43 “Because the Amal?qites and the Kena?anites are there before you, and you shall fall by the sword. Because you have turned away from ????, ???? is not with you.” 44 But they presumed to go up to the mountaintop, but neither the ark of the covenant of ???? nor Mosheh left the camp. 45 So the Amal?qites and the Kena?anites who dwelt in that mountain came down and smote them, and beat them down, even to H?ormah.
How do we know the 9th of Av is when this curse of 40 years wandering took place? Do the math.
Num 10:11 And it came to be on the twentieth day of the second month, in the second year, that the cloud was taken up from above the Dwelling Place of the Witness. 12 And the children of Yisra’?l departed, setting out from the Wilderness of Sinai. And the cloud dwelt on it in the Wilderness of Paran. 13 Thus they departed the first time, according to the command of ???? by the hand of Mosheh.
We begin our count on the 20 of the 2nd month.
Num 11:19 Ye shall not eat one day, nor two days, nor five days, neither ten days, nor twenty days; 20 But even a whole month, until it come out at your nostrils, and it be loathsome unto you: because that ye have despised the LORD which is among you, and have wept before him, saying, Why came we forth out of Egypt?
30 Days later we come to the 20th or the 21st day of the 3rd Month.
Num 12:15 And Miryam was shut out of the camp seven days, and the people did not set out until Miryam was readmitted. 16 And afterward the people departed from H?ats?roth, and they camped in the Wilderness of Paran.
This now brings us to the 27th or the 28th day of the third Month.
Num 13:25 And they returned from spying out the land after forty days.
We now add these 40 days on to the 28th day of the third month. This will take us to the 9th of Av. We are not told this specifically but if you consider the moon being sighted on the 29th day of some months, this does work out to be very close.
And then Yehovah says to them Num 14:33 ‘And your sons shall be wanderers in the wilderness forty years, and shall bear your whorings, until your carcasses are consumed in the wilderness.
Zec 8:19 “Thus said ???? of hosts, ‘The fast of the fourth, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth months, are to be joy and gladness, and pleasant appointed times for the house of Yehud?ah – and they shall love the truth and the peace.’
But where in Torah does it tell us to fast on these days. Men have added to the Torah these days. Please read with me this article by Norman Willis. Yes we should note the historical events that occurred on this date in History a number of times, but we are not to add to Torah fasts that Yehovah never sanctioned.
The Fasts of Zechariah Reconsidered
Zekaryah (Zechariah) 8:18-19
18 Then the word of YHWH of hosts came to me, saying,
19 “Thus says YHWH of hosts:
‘The fast of the fourth month, the fast of the fifth, the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth shall be joy and gladness and cheerful feasts for the House of Judah. Therefore love truth and peace.’”
The rabbinical Fast of Tammuz is coming up in five days. This is a traditional rabbinical fast, not to be confused with Yom Kippur (which is commanded in Torah).
Yahweh tells us not to add to His commands, or take anything away from them, yet this is just exactly what the Fast of Tammuz does (is to add to His commands).
With all love towards our Jewish brethren, I do not advocate keeping these rabbinical fasts. I give my reasons in the study, “The Fasts of Zechariah Reconsidered,” both below and attached.
May Yahweh bless you, and give you a wonderful, restful Shabbat!
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The Fasts of Zechariah Reconsidered
Zechariah 8:18-19 speaks of four man-made traditional fast days which are not commanded in the Torah. Should we keep them?
Zekaryah (Zechariah) 8:18-19
18 Then the word of YHWH of hosts came to me, saying,
19 “Thus says YHWH of hosts:
‘The fast of the fourth month, the fast of the fifth, the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth shall be joy and gladness and cheerful feasts for the House of Judah. Therefore love truth and peace.’”
Many people mistakenly believe this passage means that the House of Judah is to keep these man-made traditional fast days with joy and gladness, but this is not YHWH’s meaning at all. Rather, YHWH is telling the Jews not to fast, but to be joyful on those days.
How did these fast days get started? When King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon took the Jews into exile, he burned the House of YHWH with fire, and broke down the walls of Jerusalem all around.
Melachim Bet (2nd Kings) 25:8-10
8 And in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month (which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon), Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem.
9 He burned the house of YHWH and the king’s house; all the houses of Jerusalem, that is, all the houses of the great, he burned with fire.
10 And all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls of Jerusalem all around.
The Jews responded by declaring four traditional fast days: the ninth day of the fourth month, the tenth day of the fifth month, the third day of the seventh month, and the tenth day of the tenth month. Notice that these do not refer to the Day of Atonements, or Yom Kippur, which is the tenth day of the seventh month.
Vayiqra (Leviticus) 23:27-28
27 “Also the tenth day of this seventh month shall be the Day of Atonement. It shall be a set-apart gathering convocation for you; you shall afflict your souls, and offer an offering made by fire to YHWH.
28 And you shall do no work on that same day, for it is the Day of Atonement, to make atonement for you before YHWH your Elohim.”
They Orthodox/Pharisees have their reasons for these things, but it is not our purpose to get into them here. Rather, simply let us note that YHWH commands us to be careful not to add to the festivals that He commands us to keep, in His Torah.
Devarim (Deuteronomy) 4:2
2 “You shall not add to the word which I command you, nor take from it, that you may keep the commandments of YHWH your Elohim which I command you.”
Let us take a brief review of history, so we can better understand the context of Zechariah 8:18-19.
YHWH told Jeremiah that He would allow the Jews to return to His land after the seventy years of their Exile had been completed.
Yirmeyahu (Jeremiah) 29:10
10 “For thus says YHWH: ‘After seventy years are completed at Babylon, I will visit you and perform My good word toward you, and cause you to return to this place.’”
Daniel counted the years, and then prayed that YHWH would remember His people, and have compassion upon them.
9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the lineage of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans —
2 in the first year of his reign I, Daniel, understood by the books the number of the years specified by the word of YHWH through Jeremiah the Prophet, that He would accomplish seventy years in the desolations of Jerusalem.
3 Then I set my face toward YHWH Elohim to make request by prayer and supplications, with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes.
One man sows, and another man reaps. YHWH then sent word through the Prophet Zechariah, that Judah was to begin returning to His land.
Zecharyah (Zechariah) 1:14-16
14 So the messenger (angel) who spoke with me said to me, “Proclaim, saying, ‘Thus says YHWH of hosts: “I am zealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with great zeal.
15 I am exceedingly angry with the nations at ease; for I was a little angry, and they helped — but with evil intent.”
16 ‘Therefore thus says YHWH: “I am returning to Jerusalem with mercy. My house shall be built in it,” says YHWH of hosts, “and a surveyor’s line shall be stretched out over Jerusalem.”‘
We cover more of the history in the chapter on the Book of Esther, but in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, the Jews did begin to return to the land, and they also began to build the Second Temple.
8 Now in the second month of the second year of their coming to the house of Elohim at Jerusalem, Zerubbabel the son of Shealtiel, Yeshua the son of Yehotzadak, and the rest of their brethren the priests and the Levites, and all those who had come out of the captivity to Jerusalem, began work and appointed the Levites from twenty years old and above to oversee the work of the house of YHWH.
However, now that the Jews were back in the Land and the Temple was being rebuilt, the Jews wanted to know if they should continue to keep the fast days that they had instituted because of the destruction of the temple. YHWH responded with a series of questions to them, essentially asking them, “When you fasted and mourned these seventy years, did you really fast for Me? (No.) Didn’t you really fast for yourselves? (Yes). Because I never told you to fast on those days! Why didn’t you just keep the Torah that I gave through Moshe (Moses)?”
Zecharyah (Zechariah) 7:1-7
7 Now in the fourth year of King Darius it came to pass that the word of YHWH came to Zechariah, on the fourth day of the ninth month, Chislev,
2 when the people sent Sherezer, with Regem-Melech and his men, to the house of Elohim, to pray before YHWH,
3 and to ask the priests who were in the house of YHWH of hosts, and the prophets, saying, “Should I weep in the fifth month and fast as I have done for so many years?”
4 Then the word of YHWH of hosts came to me, saying,
5 “Say to all the people of the land, and to the priests: ‘When you fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh months during those seventy years, did you really fast for Me — for Me?
6 When you eat and when you drink, do you not eat and drink for yourselves?
7 Should you not have obeyed the words which YHWH proclaimed through the former prophets when Jerusalem and the cities around it were inhabited and prosperous, and the South and the Lowland were inhabited?'”
In other words, “Why did you make up your own days of fasting? Why did you not just keep My word?”
One might ask why it would be a problem if our Jewish brothers want to make up a few fast days of their own, to honor YHWH above and beyond what YHWH says He wants us to do. The answer is that YHWH does not really consider that to be honoring Him. He gives us another witness, not to add to the commandments that He gives us.
Devarim (Deuteronomy) 12:32
32 “Whatever I command you, be careful to observe it; you shall not add to it nor take away from it.”
As we explain in Tree of Knowledge, Tree of Life, the grand test is to see if we will do what YHWH asks us to do (which is to keep to the Tree of Life), or if we will ‘do our own thing’ based upon our own thoughts (which is the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil). When we add an additional festival day, or an additional fast to His calendar that is precisely what YHWH prohibits. King Solomon tells us that those people are liars.
Mishle (Proverbs) 30:6
6 Do not add to His words, lest He rebuke you, and you be found a liar.
And here is why it is especially grievous: In the opening chapter of this book (Why the Torah Calendar?) we recounted an old Jewish saying: that whoever’s calendar you keep, that is whom you worship. If we are careful to keep YHWH’s calendar, and to do only as He commands, then YHWH considers that we are worshipping Him. However, if we keep calendars that have been created by men, then we are worshipping men: and this is to worship an object of the Creation, rather than the Creator.
One’s actions show one’s loyalty. If we obey YHWH gladly, then our loyalty is with Him. However, if we obey men, then our loyalty is not with YHWH, but with man. In YHWH’s sight, this is tantamount to rebellion against His authority.
When I was first called into the Messianic Movement, it seemed to me that the quickest way to recreate the Faith Once Delivered to the Saints was to do as Yeshua and His apostles had done: that is, to start with Second Temple Period Judaism, and reject everything that contradicts with the Torah. However, as YHWH continued to lead and guide me, I began to realize that we cannot always see what conflicts with the Torah; and so I began to realize that a much safer and surer approach is be to begin with the Instructions of Elohim (i.e., YHWH’s Torah), and then to add nothing to it, and subtract nothing from it. If I cannot verify a tradition or a teaching by the Words of Elohim (i.e., YHWH’s or Yeshua’s words), then I cannot consider it to be Torah.
Our Orthodox brethren consider that when YHWH gave the Torah to Moshe, He also gave Moshe the power to modify it, as needed. They further consider that they have inherited this power from Moshe. Therefore they believe that their man-made customs and traditions constitute literal ‘Torah Law’; and this is precisely what they call it.
Zecharyah (Zechariah) 8:23
23 “Thus says YHWH of hosts: ‘In those days ten men from every language of the nations shall grasp the sleeve of a Jewish man, saying, “Let us go with you, for we have heard that Elohim is with you.”‘”
It is a wonderful thing that YHWH is calling His servant Ephraim out of the nations, to return back home to his inheritance in the Land, the Language and the Law. However, as much as we love our brother Judah, let us be careful not simply to accept his interpretations of ‘Torah Law’, let we also be found guilty of giving our loyalty not to the Creator, but to the Creation.
May YHWH please deliver all of His people from all unrighteousness, soon and in our day.
In Yeshua’s name,
Norman B. Willis
The Israelite sect of the Nazarenes
Re-establishing the original faith of the apostles
One last little bit of information to share with you. 586 B.C. when Judah fell, took place in the third year of the third Sabbatical cycle. In the fourth year of the third Sabbatical cycle in Abraham’s time the Kings of the North invaded the land of Sodom and took the inhabitants captive. Judah has been called Sodom in Prophecy.
Eze 16:1 Again the word of ???? came to me, saying,2 “Son of man, make known to Yerushalayim her abominations, 3 and say, ‘Thus said the Master ???? to Yerushalayim, “Your origin and your birth are from the land of Kena?an. Your father was an Amorite and your mother a H?ittite.
Eze 16:40 “And they shall bring up an assembly against you, and they shall stone you with stones and thrust you through with their swords, 41 and burn your houses with fire, and execute judgments on you before the eyes of many women. And I shall make you stop whoring, and no longer give gifts. 42 “So I shall bring My wrath to rest upon you, and My jealousy shall turn away from you. And I shall be calm, and no longer be vexed. 43 “Because you did not remember the days of your youth, but troubled Me with all this, so see, I shall also bring your way on your own head,” declares the Master ????. “And shall I not do this thought for all your abominations? 44 “See, all who use proverbs shall use this proverb against you, ‘Like mother, like daughter!’ 45 “You are your mother’s daughter, who despises her husband and her children. And you are the sister of your sisters, who despised their husbands and their children. Your mother was a H?ittite and your father an Amorite. 46 “And your elder sister is Shomeron, she and her daughters, who is dwelling to the north of you. And your younger sister, who is dwelling to the south of you, is Sed?om and her daughters. 47 “And have you not walked in their ways and did according to their abominations? But in all your ways you soon became more corrupt than they. 48 “As I live,” declares the Master ????, “neither your sister Sed?om nor her daughters have done as you and your daughters have done. 49 “See, this was the crookedness of your sister Sed?om: She and her daughter had pride, sufficiency of bread, and unconcerned ease. And she did not help the poor and needy. 50 “And they were haughty and did abomination before Me, and I took them away when I saw it. 51 “And Shomeron did not commit half of your sins, but you have increased your abominations more than they, and by all the abominations which you have done you made your sisters seem righteous! 52 “You also, who pleaded for your sisters, bear your own shame, because the sins which you committed were more abominable than theirs. They are more righteous than you. So be ashamed too, and bear your own shame, because you have made your sisters seem righteous. 53 “And I shall turn back their captivity, the captivity of Sed?om and her daughters, and the captivity of Shomeron and her daughters, and the captivity of your captives with them, 54 so that you bear your shame, and shall blush for all that you did when you comforted them, 55 “and your sisters, Sed?om and her daughters, return to their former state, and Shomeron and her daughters return to their former state, and you and your daughters return to your former state. 56 “Was not your sister Sed?om a byword in your mouth in the days of your pride, 57 before your evil was exposed, as the time of the reproach of the daughters of Aram and all who were around her, and of the daughters of the Philistines, who are despising you everywhere? 58 “You shall bear your wickedness and your abominations,” declares ????. 59 ‘For thus said the Master ????, “I shall deal with you as you have done, in that you have despised the oath by breaking the covenant. 60 “But I shall remember My covenant with you in the days of your youth, and I shall establish an everlasting covenant with you. 61 “And you shall remember your ways and be ashamed, when you receive your older and your younger sisters. And I shall give them to you for daughters, though not by your own covenant. 62 “And I Myself shall establish My covenant with you. And you shall know that I am ????, 63 so that you remember. And you shall be ashamed, and never open your mouth any more because of your shame, when I pardon you for all you have done,” declares the Master ????.’ ”
This is why I said at the beginning that Jerusalem is known as Sodom and done worse then Ephraim or Shomron by her whoring?
Actually Yehovah said it through Ezekiel. How is this done? By adding to the Torah or taking away from it. And because of this she is about to be invaded once more as the Prophecies of Abraham show us. Her trouble is to begin in 2012 which matches the same year as 586 BC and in 2013 the armies of the North come as in the days of Abraham. Turbulent times are directly in front of us.
Here is a list of those things added to Torah by Judah.
We who are not born Jewish are told we can convert by keeping the Noahide Laws.
The Seven Laws of Noah (Hebrew: Sheva mitzvot B’nei Noach) form the major part of the Noachide Laws, or Noahide Code. This code is a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud, were given by God as a binding set of laws for the “children of Noah” – that is, all of humankind. According to Judaism, any non-Jew who lives according to these laws is regarded as a Righteous Gentile, and is assured of a place in the world to come (Olam Haba), the final reward of the righteous. Adherents are often called “B’nei Noach” (Children of Noah) or “Noahides” and may often network in Jewish synagogues.
The seven laws listed by the Tosefta and the Talmud are
1. Prohibition of Idolatry
2. Prohibition of Murder
3. Prohibition of Theft
4. Prohibition of Sexual immorality
5. Prohibition of Blasphemy
6. Prohibition of eating flesh taken from an animal while it is still alive
7. Establishment of courts of law
The Noachide Laws comprise the six laws which were given to Adam in the Garden of Eden, according to the Talmud’s interpretation of Gen 2:16, and a seventh one, which was added after the Flood of Noah. Later, at the Revelation at Sinai, the Seven Laws of Noah were re-given to humanity and embedded in the 613 Laws given to the Children of Israel along with the Ten Commandments, which are part of, and not separate from, the 613 mitzvot. These laws are mentioned in the Torah. According to Judaism, the 613 mitzvot or “commandments” given in the written Torah, as well as their reasonings in the oral Torah, were only issued to the Jews and are therefore binding only upon them, having inherited the obligation from their ancestors. At the same time, at Mount Sinai, the Children of Israel were given the obligation to teach other nations the embedded Noachide Laws. These laws also affect Jewish law in a number of ways.
Yet the Torah says this a number of times that there shall be one law for both the Stranger and the native born; Not two different laws. The Torah never says anything about Noahide laws for the strangers who are not Jewish.
Lev 24:22 ‘You are to have one right-ruling, for the stranger and for the native, for I am ???? your Elohim.’ ”
Num 15:16 ‘One Torah and one right-ruling is for you and for the stranger who sojourns with you.’ ”
Num 15:29 ‘For him who does whatever by mistake there is one Torah, both for him who is native among the children of Yisra’?l and for the stranger who sojourns in their midst.
We just have to look up Jewish Holidays to learn what has been added.
A Jewish holiday or festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as a holy or secular commemoration of an important event in Jewish history.
The origins of various Jewish holidays generally can be found in Biblical mitzvot (commandments), rabbinical mandate, and modern Israeli history.
1 Rosh Hashanah — The Jewish New Year Judah has changed the command of Exodus 12:2 which says; “This month is the beginning of months for you, it is the first month of the year for you.” This is speaking of the month of Avi, the first month when Passover is here. By declaring this month, the seventh month, Rosh Hashanah, they hide the importance of this month. See article;
- Newsletter 5843-030 The Feast of Trumpets Why Judah does not know the meaning of this day.
Also in the fall but not in the spring Judah does something else which is not found in Torah; she postpones each of the fall Holy Days by one or two days so that they are not back to back with the weekly Sabbath. They do not do this for the spring Holy Days. This is explained in:
- Newsletter 5843-027 The Postponement Rules in Effect, and how they cause you to sin
Lev 23:4 ‘These are the appointed times of ????, set-apart gatherings which you are to proclaim at their appointed times.
Lev 23:24 “Speak to the children of Yisra’?l, saying, ‘In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you have a rest, a remembrance of blowing of trumpets, a set-apart gathering. 25 ‘You do no servile work, and you shall bring an offering made by fire to ????.’ ”
You will note there is no command here to make this the New Year, but it is a Holy Day and is set apart as such.
2 Aseret Yemei Teshuva — Ten Days of Repentance Theses are the ten days between the Feast of Trumpets and the Day of Atonement. They should be noted and self examination should be done.
3 Yom Kippur — Day of Atonement This is one of the High Days found in Lev 23. Only those days spoken of in Lev 23 are to be kept. But you must keep in mind the postponement rules Judah has now placed here which move the Holy Day from the appointed time to a man made time. Lev 23:27 “On the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. It shall be a set-apart gathering for you. And you shall afflict your beings, and shall bring an offering made by fire to ????. 28 “And you do no work on that same day, for it is the Day of Atonement, to make atonement for you before ???? your Elohim. 29 “For any being who is not afflicted on that same day, he shall be cut off from his people. 30 “And any being who does any work on that same day, that being I shall destroy from the midst of his people. 31 “You do no work – a law forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. 32 ‘It is a Sabbath of rest to you, and you shall afflict your beings. On the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you observe your Sabbath.”
4 Sukkot — Feast of Booths (or Tabernacles) This is one of the High Days found in Lev 23. It is a commandment to have an 8 day holiday with your family and extended family each year. Again keep in mind the postponement rules which have been added. Lev 23:34 “Speak to the children of Yisra’?l, saying, ‘On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the Festival of Booths for seven days to ????. 35 ‘On the first day is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work. 36 ‘For seven days you bring an offering made by fire to ????.
5 Shemini Atzeret and Simchat Torah This is the eighth Day Feast which follows right after the 7 days of Sukkot. It is a separate feast whith special meaning. Lev 23: 36 On the eighth day there shall be a set-apart gathering for you, and you shall bring an offering made by fire to ????. It is a closing festival, you do no servile work
6 Hanukkah — Festival of Lights This is the Jewish Christmas and it is one of those Holidays added to the Torah. See articles at News Letter 5844-038 9246 Chanukah and Its Pagan Traditions https://sightedmoon.com/sightedmoon_2015/?page_id=324 ; News Letter 5845-048-7070 The Truth That Channukah Hides, The Location of the Temple, The Sabbatical Years, The Identity of 300 Spartans https://sightedmoon.com/sightedmoon_2015/?page_id=571 News Letter 5846-041 6730 Chanukah Is Mithraism and Why You Need to be Re-baptised https://sightedmoon.com/sightedmoon_2015/?page_id=692
7 Tenth of Tevet This again is another day added to the Torah which Lev 23 does not support. This minor fast day marks the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem as outlined in 2 Kings 25:1 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it round about.
As a minor fast day, fasting from dawn to dusk is required, but other laws of mourning are not observed. A Torah reading and Haftorah reading, and a special prayer in the Amidah, are added at both Shacharit and Mincha services.
8 Tu Bishvat — New Year of the Trees This also is not found in Lev 23. The Year begins and ends at Aviv not Shevat. A little twist here and a little twist there and then you have many times of the year which are counted as New Year Day.
Tu Bishvat (?? ??????? – ?”? ?????) — 15 Shevat
Tu Bishvat is the new year for trees. According to the Mishnah, it marks the day from which fruit tithes are counted each year, and marks the timepoint from which the Biblical prohibition on eating the first three years of fruit and the requirement to bring the fourth year fruit to the Temple in Jerusalem were counted. In modern times, it is celebrated by eating various fruits and nuts associated with the Land of Israel. During the 17th century, Rabbi Yitzchak Luria of Safed and his disciples created a short seder, called Hemdat ha Yamim, reminiscent of the seder that Jews observe on Passover, that explores the holiday’s Kabbalistic themes.
Traditionally, trees are planted on this day. Many children collect funds leading up to this day to plant trees in Israel. Trees are usually planted locally as well.
9 Purim — Festival of Lots Purim is not found in Lev 23 and is not to be celebrated. From an article on Purim I quote the following:
- Newsletter 5845-060 Purim, US Financial Debt Worsens, It is my Brother whom I am Seeking
It is getting rather tiresome to have to address each of these so called Feast days that the world and many others want to celebrate. Many people do it as part of their worship to the creator. But are they really worshipping Him?
Many of you have come out of the pagan traditions and begun to keep the Holy Set Apart times found in Leviticus 23. You then assume that the Jews have been doing it correctly and you want to do the same as them. Far too many have dumped one set of manmade traditions to go and take up another set of manmade traditions and neglected to check the scriptures.
I have been pointing out these false teachings and I have been called everything under the sun. People do not and will not obey Yahweh, but would rather keep on doing what they have always done even if it is wrong.
If you cannot find it in Lev 23 then why on earth are you keeping it? That is as simple as it gets. If you can read it in this chapter then do it. If it is not there then stop doing it.
On Feb. 28th to March 2 will be the celebration of Purim.
Purim is not found in Lev 23, but thousands are going to keep it in defiance of Yahweh’s commandment not to add to the Torah.
Many are going to keep the celebration in spite of the fact that it is linked to the worship of Nimrod and Eshtar; Marduke and Easter. Yahweh has allowed the celebration of Purim, and Valentine’s day and Chanukah and Christmas and Easter and Halloween to flourish so He can test those who will obey Him and to know those who will not. Which one are you going to be?
Today there are far too many who come to the new understanding of learning about their Hebraic Roots. But they bring all of their churchianity teachings with them. Some come bringing the SDA teachings. Others come with Pentecostal teachings and others with Protestant or Catholic teachings. And then they add these wrong teachings to the one found in Torah mixing them all together to come up with something Yahweh hates. You must leave the baggage at the door and begin to obey Yahweh with a clean and fresh start. You must do only what is found in Torah. We are told not to add or take away from it. Yet many see nothing wrong with adding another feast to what Yahweh has already stated in Lev 23.
I hope you all will read carefully the teaching on Purim at the following link: Purim Reconsidered and do not neglect the closing comments. It commemorates the deliverance of the Persian Jews from a general massacre; however, the festival may have arisen in the pagan celebration of the advent of spring. http://www.answers.com/topic/purim
10 New Year for Kings We have already shown you Exodus 12:2 where Yehovah tells us which month is the first month and the beginning of the year. Now read the explanation of this New Year.
New Year for Kings — 1 Nisan.
Although Rosh Hashanah marks the change of the Jewish calendar year, Nisan is considered the first month of the Hebrew calendar. The Mishnah indicates that the year of the reign of Jewish kings was counted from Nisan in Biblical times. Nisan is also considered the beginning of the calendar year in terms of the order of the holidays.
In addition to this New Year, the Mishnah sets up three other legal New Years:
1st of Elul, New Year for animal tithes,
1st of Tishrei (Rosh Hashanah), the New Year for the calendar year and for vegetable tithes
15th of Shevat (Tu B’Shevat), the New Year for Trees/fruit tithes
This would confuse the new person who is now taking up and studying Torah. Yehovah does not do this. He has one New Year and it is at the 1st of Aviv. Exodus 12:2
11 Pesach — Passover This is one of the Holy Days found in Lev 23:5 ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, between the evenings, is the Passover to ????. But Judah has blurred Passover into the Days of Unleavened Bread and called them all Passover as you will notice.
Erev Pesach and Fast of the Firstborn known as “Ta’anit Bechorim” — 14 Nisan This is not found in Torah and is added by Judah to the Torah. It should not be done.
Passover (Hebrew: Pesach, ???) (first two days) — 15 and 16 Nisan Notice in this explanation how now they have said that Passover is on the 15 and 16. Lev 23 says Passover is on the 14th day. The 15th beginning at Sunset is when the Passover meal is eaten and the Death Angel passed over the Israelites. They left on the morning of the 15th day. The day goes from Sunset to Sunset.
The “Last days of Passover”, known as Acharon shel Pesach, are also a holiday commemorating K’riat Yam Suf, the Passage of the Red Sea. — 21 and 22 Nisan You will read in Lev 23:6 ‘And on the fifteenth day of this month is the Festival of Unleavened Bread to ???? – seven days you eat unleavened bread. 7 ‘On the first day you have a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work. 8 ‘And you shall bring an offering made by fire to ???? for seven days. On the seventh day is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.’ ”
The semi-holiday days between the “first days” and the “last days” of Passover are known as Chol Hamo’ed, referred to as the “Intermediate days”.
Passover commemorates the liberation of the Israelite slaves from Egypt. No leavened food is eaten during the week of Pesach, in commemoration of the fact that the Jews left Egypt so quickly that their bread did not have enough time to rise.
The first seder begins at sundown on the 15th of Nisan, and the second seder is held on the night of the 16th of Nisan. On the second night, Jews start counting the omer. The counting of the omer is a count of the days from the time they left Egypt until the time they arrived at Mount Sinai. This is also not found in Torah. See below.
12 Sefirah — Counting of the Omer Judah has begun the counting of the Omer by misunderstanding when it is to begin. They use Jos 5:10 And the children of Yisra’?l camped in Gilgal, and performed the Passover on the fourteenth day of the month at evening on the desert plains of Yerih?o. 11 And they ate of the stored grain of the land on the morrow after the Passover, unleavened bread and roasted grain on this same day. 12 And the manna ceased on the day after they had eaten the stored grain of the land. And the children of Yisra’?l no longer had manna, but they ate the food of the land of Kena?an that year.
Judah has based the counting of the Omer on this passage in Joshua. They ignore the repeated instructions in Lev 23 which states the day after the Sabbath. This is the weekly Sabbath.
Lev 23:9 And ???? spoke to Mosheh, saying, 10 “Speak to the children of Yisra’?l, and you shall say to them, ‘When you come into the land which I give you, and shall reap its harvest, then you shall bring a sheaf of the first-fruits of your harvest to the priest. 11 ‘And he shall wave the sheaf before ????, for your acceptance. On the morrow after the Sabbath the priest waves it. 12 ‘And on that day when you wave the sheaf, you shall prepare a male lamb a year old, a perfect one, as a burnt offering to ????, 13 and its grain offering: two-tenths of an ?phah of fine flour mixed with oil, an offering made by fire to ????, a sweet fragrance, and its drink offering: one-fourth of a hin of wine. 14 ‘And you do not eat bread or roasted grain or fresh grain until the same day that you have brought an offering to your Elohim – a law forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings. 15 ‘And from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering, you shall count for yourselves: seven completed Sabbaths. 16 ‘Until the morrow after the seventh Sabbath you count fifty days, then you shall bring a new grain offering to ????.
The Count of the Omer begins on the 1st day of the week during the days of Unleavened Bread. This is the day after the Sabbath.
13 Lag Ba’omer The thirty-third day of the Omer is also Lag B’Omer. Lag B’Omer is a minor holiday frequently celebrated with bonfires and with the cutting of the hair of young boys. It is a holiday concerned with mystical revelations, marking the yahrtzeit (death date) of the mystic Shimon bar Yochai and the day manna fell from heaven. It is appropriate that Chuldah be remembered on a day that celebrates prophecy.
Day 33 of counting the omer is called Lag baOmer. Go to this link to read more about this celebration and who it is commemorating. Then go to Lev 23 and read what it says we are to do on day 33. It says nothing about day 33.
Deu 4:2 “Do not add to the Word which I command you, and do not take away from it1, so as to guard the commands of ???? your Elohim which I am commanding you.
Deu 12:32 “All the words I am commanding you, guard to do it – do not add to it nor take away from it.
Pro 30:6 Do not add to His Words1, Lest He reprove you, and you be found a liar.
Rev 22:18 For I witness to everyone hearing the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone adds to them, Elohim shall add to him the plagues that are written in this book,19 and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, Elohim shall take away his part from the Book of Life, and out of the set-apart city, which are written in this Book.
Lev 23 does not say to do anything on this day 33 nor does it tell us to cut our hair.
The day of Lag BaOmer is also celebrated as the Hillula or yahrzeit (anniversary of death) of bar Yochai, who is purported to have authored the Zohar, a landmark text of Jewish mysticism. According to tradition, on the day of bar Yochai’s death, he revealed the deepest secrets of the Kabbalah. Indeed this day is seen as a celebration of the giving of the hidden, mystical Torah through Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai, as a parallel to Shavuot, which celebrates the giving of the revealed Torah through Moses. Indeed there is a source in the Kabbalah that Moses was reincarnated as Rabbi Shimon Bar Yochai to give this mystical element of the Torah to the Jewish people.
During the Middle Ages, Lag BaOmer became a special holiday for rabbinical students and was called the “scholar’s festival.” It was customary to rejoice on this day through various kinds of merrymaking.
Lag BaOmer has another significance based on the Kabbalistic custom of assigning a Sefirah to each day and week of the Omer count. The first week corresponds to Chesed, the second week to Gevurah, etc., and similarly, the first day of each week corresponds to Chesed, the second day to Gevurah, etc. Thus, the 33rd day, which is the fifth day of the fifth week, corresponds to Hod she-be-Hod (Splendor within [the week of] Splendor). As such, Lag BaOmer represents the level of spiritual manifestation or Hod that would precede the more physical manifestation of the 49th day (Malkhut she-be-Malkhut, Kingship within [the week of] Kingship), which immediately precedes the holiday of Shavuot.
This is the explanation for Lag Ba Omer and there is nothing found in Torah to support it. It comes from Kabbalistic sources or Jewish witchcraft.
14 Shavuot — Feast of Weeks — Yom HaBikurim This Day is found in Lev 23 and you arrive at this day by counting the 50 days of the Omer. This is why it is important to begin at the right day. The day after the Weekly Sabbath or the first day of the week.
Lev 23:15 ‘And from the morrow after the Sabbath, from the day that you brought the sheaf of the wave offering, you shall count for yourselves: seven completed Sabbaths. 16 ‘Until the morrow after the seventh Sabbath you count fifty days, then you shall bring a new grain offering to ????. 17 ‘Bring from your dwellings for a wave offering two loaves of bread, of two-tenths of an ?phah of fine flour they are, baked with leaven, first-fruits to ????. 18 ‘And besides the bread, you shall bring seven lambs a year old, perfect ones, and one young bull and two rams. They are a burnt offering to ????, with their grain offering and their drink offerings, an offering made by fire for a sweet fragrance to ????. 19 ‘And you shall offer one male goat as a sin offering, and two male lambs a year old, as a peace offering. 20 ‘And the priest shall wave them, besides the bread of the first-fruits, as a wave offering before ????, besides the two lambs. They are set-apart to ???? for the priest. 21 ‘And on this same day you shall proclaim a set-apart gathering for yourselves, you do no servile work on it – a law forever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.
15 Seventeenth of Tammuz The 17th of Tammuz traditionally marks the first breach in the walls of the Second Temple during the Roman occupation.
As a minor fast day, fasting from dawn to dusk is required, but other laws of mourning are not observed. A Torah reading and Haftorah reading, and a special prayer in the Amidah, are added at both Shacharit and Mincha services.
Again this day is not found in Lev 23 as a day to fast on. It is an historical day upon which a chain of events would lead to the destruction of Solomon’s Temple.
• 16 The Three Weeks and the Nine Days The Three Weeks: Seventeenth of Tammuz, 17 Tammuz – 9 Av (Tisha B’Av)
• The Nine Days: 1–9 Av
• (See also Tenth of Tevet)
The days between the 17th of Tammuz and the 9th of Av are days of mourning, on account of the collapse of Jerusalem during the Roman occupation which occurred during this time framework. Weddings and other joyful occasions are traditionally not held during this period. A further element is added within the three weeks, during the nine days between the 1st and 9th day of Av — the pious refrain from eating meat and drinking wine, except on Shabbat or at a Seudat Mitzvah (a Mitzvah meal, such as a Pidyon Haben — the recognition of a firstborn male child — or the study completion of a religious text.) In addition, one’s hair is not cut during this period.
In Conservative Judaism, the Rabbinical Assembly’s Committee on Jewish Law and Standards has issued several responsa (legal rulings) which hold that the prohibitions against weddings in this timeframe are deeply held traditions, but should not be construed as binding law. Thus, Conservative Jewish practice would allow weddings during this time, except on the 9th of Av itself. Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism hold that halakha (Jewish law) is no longer binding, and rabbis in those movements follow their individual consciences on such matters; some uphold the traditional prohibitions and some permit weddings on these days. Orthodox Judaism maintains the traditional prohibitions.
Again all of these are manmade traditions around the fall and destruction of the Temple and cannot be found in Lev 23. If it ain’t in Lev 23 then why on earth are you keeping this celebration or fast?
17 Tisha B’av — Ninth of Av This day is not found in Lev 23 and is not a commanded day to fast. It is a day to reflect on past calamities.
Tisha B’Av (??? ???? ????) — 9 Av
Tisha B’Av is a fast day that commemorates two of the saddest events in Jewish history that both occurred on the ninth of Av — the destruction in 586 BCE of the First Temple, originally built by King Solomon, and destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Other calamities throughout Jewish history are said to have taken place on Tisha B’Av, including King Edward I’s edict compelling the Jews to leave England (1290) and the Jewish expulsion from Spain in 1492.
Again does Lev 23 tell us to fast on 9th of Av? Please show me where it says to do this.
18 Tithe of animals
New Year for Animal Tithes (Taxes) — 1 Elul
This commemoration is no longer observed. This day was set up by the Mishna as the New Year for animal tithes, which is somewhat equivalent to a new year for taxes. (This notion is similar to the tax deadline in the United States of America on April 15.)
I can understand why this day was dropped. Ever wonder why Yehovah would make a Special day and then make it not special? He does not do this. He has given the days we are to keep in Lev 23 and they have not changed throughout history. We are not to add to them nor take them away. So here is one the Mishnah has added and then taken away. Hmmm.
19 Rosh Chodesh — the New Month The first day of each month and the thirtieth day of the preceding month, if it has thirty days, is (in modern times) a minor holiday known as Rosh Chodesh (head of the month). The one exception is the month of Tishrei, whose beginning is a major holiday, Rosh Hashanah. There are also special prayers said upon observing the new Moon for the first time each month.
Rosh Chodesh or Rosh ?odesh, (Hebrew: ??? ?????; trans. Beginning of the Month; lit. Head of the Month), is the name for the first day of every month in the Hebrew calendar, marked by the appearance of the New Moon. The New Moon is marked by the day and hour that the new cresent is observed. It is considered a minor holiday, akin to the intermediate days of Passover and Sukkot.
In astronomical terminology, the new moon is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon, in its monthly orbital motion around Earth, lies between Earth and the Sun, and is therefore in conjunction with the Sun as seen from Earth. At this time, the dark (unilluminated) portion of the Moon faces almost directly toward Earth, so that the Moon is not visible to the naked eye.
The original meaning of the phrase new moon was the first visible crescent of the Moon, after conjunction with the Sun. This takes place over the western horizon in a brief period between sunset and moonset, and therefore the precise time and even the date of the appearance of the new moon by this definition will be influenced by the geographical location of the observer. The astronomical new moon, sometimes known as the dark moon to avoid confusion, occurs by definition at the moment of conjunction in ecliptic longitude with the Sun, when the Moon is invisible from the Earth. This moment is unique and does not depend on location, and under certain circumstances it is coincident with a solar eclipse.
The new moon in its original meaning of first crescent marks the beginning of the month in lunar calendars such as the Muslim calendar, and in lunisolar calendars such as the Hebrew calendar, Hindu calendars, and Buddhist calendar. But in the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the month is marked by the dark moon.
Historically, new moon spotters in Israel watched for the thin crescent to establish the beginning of each month. Once seen they reported their sighting to the calendar court authorities of the Sanhedrin. Note what one authority says, “Originally, the New Moon was not fixed by astronomical calculation, but was solemnly proclaimed after witnesses had testified to the reappearance of the crescent of the moon,” Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 12, p. 1039.
The switchover from watching for the first visible crescent to calculating conjunctions to determine the month’s beginning came with Hillel II’s calendar revisions in the 4th century C.E. “By the middle of the fourth century, the sages had established a permanent calendar and the public proclamation of the New Moon was discontinued” (Ibid).
Going by the calculated lunar conjunction contradicts the command in Deuteronomy 16:1: “Observe the month [chodesh, new moon] of Abib and keep the Passover…” Here, the word “observe” in the Hebrew is shamar and also means “look narrowly for, search” (No. 8104 in Strong’s). The Holladay Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon defines it as watching in the sense of looking. Vine’s Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words includes the definitions “mark, watchman, wait, watch, look narrowly.” The command is to look for, wait for, watch and mark the new moon.
The problem is that you cannot see a moon that is completely black or dark, as it is during a conjunction. It would be lunacy sending out new moon watchers on the night of a conjunction to look for a moon they cannot see. To visually confirm the new moon there must be something to identify. Obviously, the invisible conjunction is not that something.
Judah now uses the conjunction to begin each month. Because of this each of the Holy Days when they count to them as we are instructed in Lev 23, are off by one to three days. As such in some years they are keeping most of the Holy Days at the wrong time.
20 Shabbat — The Sabbath — ??? Jewish law accords Shabbat the status of a holiday, a day of rest celebrated on the seventh day of each week. Jewish law defines a day as ending at nightfall, which is when the next day then begins. Thus, Shabbat begins at sundown Friday night, and ends at nightfall Saturday night.
In many ways halakha (Jewish law) gives Shabbat the status of being the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar.
It is the first holiday mentioned in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and God was the first one to observe it.
This day is the first one mentioned in Lev 23:1 And ???? spoke to Mosheh, saying, 2 “Speak to the children of Yisra’?l, and say to them, ‘The appointed times of ????, which you are to proclaim as set-apart gatherings, My appointed times, are these: 3 ‘Six days work is done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, a set-apart gathering. You do no work, it is a Sabbath to ???? in all your dwellings.
Now you understand why Yehovah calls Jerusalem Sodom for all her abominations in changing the set apart times. By changing the way we sight the moon to begin each count to the Holy Day, by adding other days and making them semi holy. By postponing the Holy Days.
Do not add to nor take away from the Torah. Do what you are told to do in Lev 23 and do not add to it. Period.
Triennial Torah cycle
We now return to our 3 1/2 year Torah studies
Ex 26 Isaiah 40-42 Psalm 146 John 14-15
The word tabernacle comes from a Latin word meaning “tent.” The Hebrew word translated tabernacle literally means “dwelling place.” It may refer to either just the tent-or to the tent with the surrounding courtyard. In any case, the sense of being portable and temporary is obvious. And this sense of God having a temporary dwelling will continue all the way up to Solomon’s time, when the tabernacle is replaced by the temple, a more fixed structure. This later event is seen by many as a foreshadowing of the Kingdom of God-when Christ takes up permanent residence on earth. The time of the tabernacle is thus seen as God inhabiting His people in the fleshly tent of our temporary bodies (compare 2 Corinthians 5:1-4).
In Exodus 26 and 27, we again read of the intricate designing of the Master Builder Himself. Only the finest materials available were used in construction of the tabernacle and its contents. Acacia wood was a light, strong and beautiful wood-durable and resistant to insects and disease-that grew in this region. God was very specific in His instructions for the building of the tabernacle. His instruction to be very precise in following the detailed building plan was repeated. He is the same when it comes to His righteous laws. Mankind is not to add to His laws or take away from them (Deuteronomy 4:1-2; Revelation 22:18-19).
Whenever God designs and builds anything, He does so according to a careful advance plan. His creation is not the result of some massive random cosmic explosion with colliding planetoids later accidentally forming a globular mass right where the earth needed to be in the solar system to make it advantageous for human life. Could you imagine reading the words, “In the beginning, God said, ‘OOPS'”?
When reading these chapters, take time to appreciate the fine detail of our Creator’s perfect craftsmanship. And consider the lesson in Luke 16:10 to see how God judges our character: “He who is faithful in what is least is faithful also in much; and he who is unjust in what is least is unjust also in much.”
Beginning with this chapter, the remainder of the book of Isaiah takes on a different tone—so much so that some have tried to claim it was really written by a different author. Part of the reason is that chapters 40-55 appear to be addressed to the people of Jerusalem while they are in captivity—and their captivity was not until many years after Isaiah’s death. However, the New Testament assigns 23 verses from all sections of this book specifically to the prophet Isaiah (1:9; 6:9-10; 9:1-2; 10:22-23; 11:10; 29:13; 40:3-5; 42:1-4; 53:1,4,7-8; 61:1-2; 65:1). So Isaiah’s message was written for the future—for Israel and Judah in their imminent captivity and in their end-time captivity.
The message is to comfort and console the exiles. Luke 2:25 refers to the future redemption of Israel as the “Consolation of Israel”—which was to be accomplished through Jesus Christ. In 2 Corinthians 1, the apostle Paul tells us that God comforts us so that we may comfort others (verses 3-4). Learning to be a comforter is learning to be like God. At times, chronic or serious trials can be very discouraging for a Christian, leaving one to wonder why God allows them. One of the reasons is to train us to be able to lend aid and comfort to those experiencing the same or a similar type of difficulty. A person with no experience with trials is limited in his ability to empathize and sympathize with those who truly suffer. On the other hand, the person experienced in receiving God’s comfort while enduring trials is well equipped to offer godly comfort to others.
Verses 3-5 of Isaiah 40 are identified by all four Gospel writers as applying to John the Baptist (Matthew 3:3; Mark 1:3; Luke 3:4-6; John 1:23)—who announced the first coming of the Messiah. However, Jesus indicated that John only partially fulfilled these prophecies—that their ultimate fulfillment would come in the end time (see Matthew 17:10-13, especially verse 11).
Notice the message: “Every valley shall be exalted and every mountain and hill brought low” (Isaiah 40:4). What does this mean? Does it mean that all mountain ranges on earth will be flattened and all valleys filled in? If so, it would mean no more Grand Canyon. No more Yosemite Valley. No more Matterhorn. No more great cascading waterfalls and other such beautiful wonders of God’s creation. A perpetually flat landscape, with only slight dips and rises. Is this what God means? No, for while there will likely be topographical changes to the surface of the earth, “every” valley and “every” hill will not disappear. If that happened, the whole world would be flooded. Indeed, Scripture says that Jerusalem itself will be an exalted mountain during Christ’s reign.
So what does the prophecy here mean? It appears to have both a figurative and a literal meaning. Mountains and hills being brought low can represent large and small nations being humbled, and valleys being raised can represent oppressed and downtrodden people being exalted (compare verses 17, 23, 29; 2:11-17; 24:21; 60:10, 14, showing that God hates pride, and how the haughty will be humbled and the humble—especially the faithful saints—will be exalted). Yet again, there is apparently a literal fulfillment as well. Consider that the passage is discussing the building of a highway (verse 3). It is in the construction of this highway that mountains are brought low and valleys are raised—crooked places made straight and rough places smoothed (verse 4). Thus, if there’s a mountain in the way, it is brought low; if a valley would impede the highway, the valley is raised up (compare 42:15-16; 49:11). Furthermore, since the purpose of a highway is to facilitate interchange between separated people, we can look at this figuratively as well. Any obstacles that separate and divide people will be removed (compare 19:23; 62:10).
Remember that this reference applied in part to the work of John preparing the way (the highway) for Jesus’ first coming. No physical highway was then being built. Rather, John preached a message of repentance and many of his followers became disciples of Jesus. Yet John’s work of preparation was a forerunner of an end-time work of preparation—preparing for the second coming of Christ. Again, it is accomplished through a message of repentance and helping people in the process of conversion and overcoming sin.
At Christ’s return, the Israelites and then the whole world will be helped in the same process. When He comes, there will be a literal highway of return for the exiles from Assyria and Egypt. But more importantly, that highway will represent spiritual return to God—repentance—as well as harmony with other people through that way of repentance. Part of the repentance process will include people coming to terms with and turning from hatred and competition that has existed between nations for sometimes thousands of years.
Verses 6-8 are cited by Peter in discussing the solution to the fleetingness of human life (1 Peter 1:24-25). The same analogy of man’s life being as the grass of the field is used by James as well—applied especially to the futility of riches as a panacea (James 1:10-11; see also Job 14:1-2; Psalm 103:15-16). Verses 9-11 show the zeal and courage the Church should have in preaching the joyous “good tidings!” Verse 13 is quoted twice by Paul (Romans 11:34; 1 Corinthians 2:16).
One of the many recurring themes in this section of Isaiah is the greatness of God’s power as the Creator of the universe, of the earth and of man upon the earth (verses 12, 22, 28; for more examples see also 42:5; 44:24; 45:12, 18). In verse 26, we are told to lift our eyes upward—to the heavens. God calls all in the “host”—that is, the celestial bodies, including all the stars—by name, an amazing fact also mentioned in Psalm 147:4. It is amazing since there are at least a hundred billion galaxies of a hundred billion stars each. Scientists estimate the universe at around 15 billion years old. Yet to name every star at a rate of one per second would take more than 21,000 times that long—a mind-boggling feat that God gives but a passing mention. The greatness and awesome might of God should be of true comfort to His people.
The chapter ends with the wonderful verses about waiting on God. “To wait [on God] entails confident expectation and active hope in the Lord—never passive resignation (Ps. 40:1). Mount up…run…walk depicts the spiritual transformation that faith brings to a person. The Lord gives power to those who trust in him…. The eagle depicts the strength that comes from the Lord. The Lord describes his deliverance of the Israelites in Ex. 19:4 as similar to being lifted up on an eagle’s strong wings. In Ps. 103:5, the strength of people who are nourished by God is compared to the strength of the eagle” (Nelson Study Bible, note on Isaiah 40:31). It is a remarkable picture. Through faith in God’s power, our waiting can be a time of soaring.
In verse 2 God mentions sending someone “from the east.” In verse 25 He says this person is “from the north” yet also “from the rising of the sun”—which again means from the east. So it is likely that the same person is being referred to. Yet who is this person?
First of all, we need to bear in mind that this whole section of prophecy is given to comfort the exiles of Judah and Israel—in both their ancient and future Babylonian captivities. It is describing a time of punishment on their enemies. Thus, the person being sent would seem to be a deliverer sent to free them from captivity. Indeed, most commentaries equate this person with the Persian ruler Cyrus, who conquered Babylon in 539 B.C. and released the Jewish exiles. This is a sensible conclusion since Cyrus is explicitly referred to by name in basically the same role just a few chapters later (44:28-45:4).
“One from the east refers to Cyrus, king of Persia (559-530 B.C.; see 46:11)” (Nelson Study Bible, note on 41:2). And as for “from the north…from the rising of the sun” and his calling on God’s name (verse 25): “The conquest of Media by Cyrus (550 B.C.) made him master of the territories north of Babylon. Cyrus, who did not personally know God (45:4), nevertheless called on God’s name when he released the exiles (2 Chr. 36:23; Ezra 1:1-4)” (note on Isaiah 41:25).
Yet remarkably, Cyrus is referred to in chapters 44-45 as God’s shepherd and God’s anointed. He is clearly being used as a forerunner of Jesus Christ, who is sent by God the Father to ultimately free the exiles in the end time. Jesus comes from the north since God’s throne is said to be “on the mount of the congregation on the farthest sides of the north” (14:13). And reference to Christ’s coming from the east is found in the New Testament: “For as the lightning comes from the east and flashes to the west, so also will the coming of the Son of Man be” (Matthew 24:27).
Israel is referred to as God’s servant—a servant being one who obeys a master, lord or employer. “The term was bestowed on the person chosen to administer and advance God’s kingdom (Ex. 14:31; 2 Sam. 3:18). In chs. 40-55, the title of servant is bestowed implicitly on Cyrus (45:1-4) and explicitly on God’s prophets (44:26), the nation of Israel (44:21; 45:4) and particularly on the Lord Jesus Christ (42:1-4; 52:13)” (Nelson, note on 41:8). We will see more on this in our next reading.
Also in verse 8, the Israelites’ blessing is shown to be rooted in their descent from Abraham, God’s friend. This incredible designation occurs in two other places in Scripture (James 2:23; 2 Chronicles 20:7). This friendship with Abraham extends to his descendants, and it is what ultimately brings favor and victory to Israel.
Those who are incensed against Israel (Isaiah 41:11), or war against Israel (verse 12), will be as nothing. God will help His chosen people (verses 13-14). “Exiled Israel seemed as feeble and despicable as a worm (Job 25:6; Ps. 22:6 [the latter verse prophetic of Christ in His final suffering])” (Nelson, note on Isaiah 41:14).
But God will deliver Israel—and not merely through unilaterally destroying its enemies. The Israelites would themselves thresh the mountains and hills (verse 15), symbolic of the nations around them and their false religions (compare Isaiah 2:2; Deuteronomy 12:2; Jeremiah 3:21-23). “The lowly ‘worm’ (v. 14) would be transformed into a threshing sledge (28:27) that removes mountains, the symbols of opposition and the location of pagan temples and palaces (Mic. 1:3-5)” (note on Isaiah 41:15). This did not happen in Israel’s ancient return from Babylonian captivity—in which only a small percentage of Jews (and none of the northern tribes) returned to the Promised Land. This shows the prophecy to be primarily for the end time.
Furthermore, God is presented as performing miracles for the returning exiles, meeting their basic needs in the desert as He did for Israel of old (verses 17-20). This also did not happen in the ancient return from Babylonian captivity. But it will happen in Israel and Judah’s future when Christ comes back. And Jesus will ultimately crush Israel’s enemies, in a much greater way than Cyrus ever did (verse 25).
Finally, God satirically shows the foolishness of idolatry. Idols cannot proclaim the future. They can’t proclaim anything at all. God challenges idols in verse 23 to “do good or evil.” What He’s really saying is: “Do anything!” But of course, they cannot. The nations were and still are mired in idolatry—or, in God’s words, “wind and confusion” (verse 29). And this is not limited to overtly pagan religions. Idolatry and many pagan practices and ideas are deeply embedded in traditional Christianity, which is really a counterfeit religion mixing some authentic Christian concepts with ancient paganism. Thankfully, Christ is coming to set all aright.
The first four verses of chapter 42 are quoted by the apostle Matthew to describe Jesus (Matthew 12:18-21), and the chapter continues in its description of this Messiah to come (verses 6-7; compare Luke 2:32; 4:18). Jamieson, Fausset & Brown’s Commentary states: “The law of prophetic suggestion leads Isaiah from Cyrus to the far greater Deliverer, behind whom the former is lost sight of. The express quotation in Matthew 12:18-20, and the description can apply to Messiah alone (Ps. 40:6; with which cf. Exod. 21:6; John 6:38; Phil. 2:7). Israel, also, in its highest ideal, is called the ‘servant’ of God (ch. 49:3). But this ideal is realized only in the antitypical Israel, its representative-man and Head, Messiah (cf. Matt. 2:15, with Hos. 11:1)” (note on Isaiah 42:1). Some statements in Isaiah 42 refer to Jesus’ first coming, some to the second.
Verses 2-3 refer to His gentleness at His first coming and toward those who are humbly seeking Him at His second coming. But verses 13-15 show another side of Jesus—His power and wrath toward evildoers during the Day of the Lord.
Returning to Christ’s gentleness in verse 3, His not breaking a bruised reed appears to mean that upon those who are lowly and hurt, having already suffered punishment, Jesus will not add to their punishment. Indeed, just the opposite, He will take special care of them and restore them to health and happiness—and even grant them spiritual vitality. “Smoking flax” in the same verse is rendered “dimly burning wick” in the RSV and NRSV (see also JFB Commentary). This appears to represent those who at one time had a fiery zeal but are now as a mere smoldering candle wick about to go out—their faith and hope in God’s deliverance is almost gone. Jesus will not quench what is left in them. Again, just the opposite, He will rescue them, not only restoring their faith and zeal, but through the granting of His Spirit giving them such a fiery zeal for God as is otherwise humanly impossible.
Verse 4 says He would bring law to the world (compare 2:2-4). Verse 21 of Isaiah 42 says one of His responsibilities would be to “magnify the law and make it honorable” (KJV). In Christ’s famous Sermon on the Mount, far from doing away with God’s law as many argue, He explained the spiritual intent behind God’s law and actually made it even more binding—showing that God’s law is to regulate even our thoughts, not merely our actions (see Matthew 5:17-48).
Isaiah 42:14 shows that the punishment on Israel is painful to God, as is often the case when parents have to discipline their children. To God it will have been like birth pangs—ending with His at last “delivering” them. Rabbinic teaching refers to the time just before the Messiah comes as the “birth pangs of the Messiah.” Verses 15-16 show the miraculous way in which Christ will lead the exiles back from their captivity. It has also been suggested that this is representative of Christ leading spiritual Israel, the New Testament Church, ever since its inception to ultimate deliverance in the Kingdom of God. That may well be, as the Church is paving the way, so to speak, for the return of physical Israel and eventually all of mankind, which must be grafted into Israel as well (see Romans 11).
In Isaiah 42:18-20, the “servant” and “messenger” of God is Israel—now spiritually blind and deaf. This is clearly illustrated in the remainder of the chapter. The people sit in captivity and punishment because of their disobedience. In the ancient Babylonian captivity, Christ’s coming to magnify the law was yet future. Now He has already come and still the people do not heed. This has been the cause of the Israelites’ suffering through the ages. And it will culminate in the worst time of suffering ever. Yet even in captivity, the people will not at first repent and turn to God.
We come now to the concluding section of the book of Psalms, the final Hallel (“Praise”) collection (Psalms 146-150)-the other two being the Egyptian Hallel (113-118) and the Great Hallel (120-136). In this final cluster of five untitled and unattributed hymns, each is bracketed at beginning and end by shouts of Hallelujah! (“Praise Yah,” typically appearing as “Praise the LORD”)-perhaps added by the final editors of the Psalter (see in comparison Psalms 105-106 and 111-117).
The Zondervan NIV Study Bible comments: “The Psalter collection [the whole book of Psalms] begins with two psalms that address the reader and whose function is to identify those to whom the collections [of the Psalter] specifically belong [that is, those who fit the profile of the righteous as portrayed in the Psalms-the holy congregation of God] (see…Ps 1-2). Here, at the collection’s end, that congregation gives voice to its final themes. They are the themes of praise-and calls to praise-of Zion’s heavenly King (see 146:10; 147:12; 149:2), the Maker, Sustainer and Lord over all creation (see 146:6; 147:4, 8-9, 15-18; 148:5-6); the one sure hope of those who in their need and vulnerability look to him for help (see 146:5-9; 147:2-3, 6, 11, 13-14; 149:4); the Lord of history whose commitment to his people is their security and the guarantee that, as his kingdom people (see especially 147:19-20), they will ultimately triumph over all the forces of this world arrayed against them (see 146:3, 10; 147:2, 6, 10, 13-14; 148:14; 149:4-9)” (introductory note on Psalms 146-150).
The psalms of this final section are typically thought to have been composed following the Jewish return from Babylonian Exile.
However, there is no way to really know whether this is the case. It does seem likely that these psalms were at least arranged as a concluding group at that time. The Latin Vulgate translation follows the Greek Septuagint in attributing Psalms 146 and 147 (with the latter divided into two psalms) to the postexilic prophets Haggai and Zechariah respectively. However, there is no other evidence to corroborate this.
Psalm 146, the first in the final Hallel collection, is, as the Zondervan NIV Study Bible notes, “a hymn in praise of Zion ‘s heavenly King, with special focus on his powerful and trustworthy care for Zion ‘s citizens who look to him when oppressed, broken or vulnerable. It has many thematic links with Ps 33; 62; 145.” Indeed, there are a number of very close links to the latter, the previous psalm, as we will see-thus providing a good transition from the Davidic collection (138-145) to the final collection of psalms (146-150).
Following the opening general declaration of Hallelujah or “Praise the LORD,” the psalmist gives the same imperative to himself (verse 1)-and all who sing the song thus proclaim this directive to themselves as well. “O my soul” here is simply a way of speaking to oneself. For a similar directive, compare the opening and closing of Psalms 103 and 104.
Psalm 146:3-5 echoes 118:8-9 in calling on people to not trust in mortal human beings no matter what their station in life but rather to look to God. Of course, we have to trust people to a certain extent as part of life. The point here is that other human beings should not be our ultimate source of trust. For that we must rely on God (compare also Jeremiah 17:5, 7).
Incidentally, note that the New King James Version translates the end of verse 4 to say that when a human being dies and his spirit leaves his body, at the same time “his plans perish.” The NIV says, “his plans come to nothing,” and other modern translations follow suit. However, the earlier King James Version renders this literally to say “his thoughts perish.” While thoughts can certainly include plans, there is no valid basis here for limiting the scope of the word. Rather, the basis in this case is one of doctrinal bias, and this is a good example of how such bias can influence translation. No doubt later translators found the literal wording untenable given their belief in the immortality of the human soul wherein consciousness continues apart from the body-a doctrine not supported by Scripture. The Bible instead teaches that at death a person’s thoughts do in fact cease: “The dead know nothing…. There is no work or device or knowledge in the grave where you are going” (Ecclesiastes 9:5, 10). Death is elsewhere portrayed in Scripture as an unconscious sleep. Life after death is not as a disembodied consciousness but will come only through a future resurrection of the dead to a new body.
Returning now to the progression of the psalm, let’s note again that verse 5 gives the contrast to verses 3-4. Rather than trusting in mortal man, “happy” or “blessed” (NIV) is the person who relies on God for help. The remainder of the psalm then explains why this is so, showing that God-the Almighty Creator, Sustainer and Deliverer, who faithfully loves and cares for those in need, and who (in contrast to dying) lives and reigns forever-can truly be counted on.
“The LORD raises those who are bowed down” (verse 8) is essentially repeated from the previous psalm (compare 145:14). God giving food to the hungry (146:7) is also found in the previous psalm (145:15-16). Furthermore, God caring for the righteous and upending the wicked is found in both songs (145:17-20; 146:8-9)-as is the focus on God reigning forever (145:13; 146:10).
As in many psalms, God is identified with His nation of Israel . Note in verse 5 that He is the “God of Jacob,” and in verse 10 that He is referred to “Your God, O Zion.” Israel and Zion are the special recipients of God’s attentive care and blessings. We will see this focus in the next psalm as well. Yet we should recognize, as throughout the Psalter, that these names can apply to God’s spiritual people as well-His Church. Moreover the ultimate fulfillment of the help promised in both psalms will come with the future establishment of the Kingdom of God over all nations-who must all become part of Israel in a spiritual sense.
We have talked about the wedding before and we must do so once again here.
Kiddushin is derived from the word Kadosh, meaning holy! Once a bride and bridegroom enter into this initial phase of marriage they are considered married. In other words, they would have to get a divorce, called a “get” to break off the engagement. This period lasts from one to two years.
The betrothal is a parallel to the engagement in most ways except that in the ancient Jewish custom, it was binding! It was so binding that it could not be broken without a orthodox divorce. You were considered bound together from the period you entered the betrothal contract until the wedding day. When Joseph discovered that his betrothed wife Mary was with child he had real grounds to obtain a orthodox divorce and would have if the angel had not appeared unto him and explained what was going on. Even though the couple is engaged they do not have a physical relationship and they do not live together either.
The groom’s father made and approved choice of the bride. In traditional Jewish customs, marriages were arranged by their fathers. It is quite often that the Bride and Groom have never seen one another before they are engaged.
In Judaism the Sabbath is seen as the bride. Israel, all 12 tribes are collectively known as the bride and the Messiah is the bridegroom. The Father makes and approves the choice.
John 6:44 “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day.”
2 Corinthians 11:2 – For I, Paul have betrothed you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to the Messiah.
The Groom’s Promise: Tenaim – Conditions
The Groom makes a covenant or contract promise. The Ketubah is a document that is used for the purpose of assuring a bride will be provided for. Once this document was signed and witnessed by two people then it was binding and the couple was considered married.
Drink the cup of wine to seal the covenant. Kiddush
Groom pays a price to show he is serious.; today the wedding ring is used for this purpose.
Groom’s speech of promise to his bride that he would come to claim her soon, this is the Engagement Promise.
A Covenant Relationship –
God made a Covenant with Israel at Sinai. The New Covenant will be the same as the old only it is to be written on our hearts. Yehshua drank the cup of redemption at Passover. Yehshua paid the bride price of redemption for us on the tree.
1 Corinthians 6:20 John 14:2-3
Groom Prepares a Place for His Bride: Chuppah
Groom prepares a bridal chamber where they stay for seven days. He works on it until it pleases his father. Then he may go after his bride. The Chuppah canopy is derived from this type of a bridal chamber.
Yeshua tells us that He does not know when He will come; only His Father knows. We must be alert and ready! For, He is preparing our place now. Be alert: Be ready: Do all He asks while you’re here. Develop an active prayer life. Offer yourself in ministry opportunity. Keep ourselves from doubt and failure.
John 14:1-4 “Let not your heart be troubled; you believe in God, believe also in Me. In My Father’s house are many mansions; if it were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and receive you to Myself; that where I am, there you may be also. And where I go you know, and the way you know.”
Waiting for up to two years –for the bridegroom to come for the bride.
The word Nisuin means “to lift up” or “carry”. Lifting up the bride is an ancient wedding custom of carrying the bride to the ceremony in a carriage lifted by poles. Although seldom done today, the ceremony bears the name. The Chuppah is not only related to the bridal chamber, it is also “lifted” by poles like the ancient carriage. The custom of lifting the bride and now the groom in chairs is rooted in this processional. Due to the expense of having two ceremonies.
Again we read in John how He will raise us up which refers to this ceremony. 6:44 “No one can come to Me unless the Father who sent Me draws him; and I will raise him up at the last day.”
You can read the rest of this teaching at http://www.yeshuatyisrael.com/messiah_wedding%201.htm
These are some truly priceless scriptures that most Christians choose to ignore and not keep. If they kept them they would be keeping the Sabbath and the Holy Days and the Sabbatical years. This is how we know we Love Yehovah and that He loves us; if we keep His commandments. None are done away as many teach.
Joh 14:12 “Truly, truly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works that I do he shall do also. And greater works than these he shall do, because I go to My Father. 13 “And whatever you ask in My Name, that I shall do, in order that the Father might be esteemed in the Son. 14 “If you ask whatever in My Name, I shall do it.
Joh 14:15 “If you love Me, you shall guard My commands.1 Footnote: 1See Ex. 20:6, vv. 21&23, 1 John 5:2-3, 2 John v. 6.
Joh 14:21 “He who possesses My commands and guards them, it is he who loves Me. And he who loves Me shall be loved by My Father, and I shall love him and manifest Myself to him.”
Joh 14:23 ????? answered him, “If anyone loves Me, he shall guard My Word. And My Father shall love him, and We shall come to him and make Our stay with him. Joh 14:24 “He who does not love Me does not guard My Words. And the Word which you hear is not Mine but of the Father Who sent Me.
Joh 15:1 “I am the true vine, and My Father is the gardener.
Joh 15:2 “Every branch in Me that bears no fruit He takes away. And every branch that bears fruit He prunes, so that it bears more fruit.
Joh 15:7 “If you stay in Me, and My Words stay in you, you shall ask whatever you wish, and it shall be done for you.
Joh 15:8 “In this My Father is esteemed, that you bear much fruit, and you shall be My taught ones.
Joh 15:10 “If you guard My commands, you shall stay in My love,1 even as I have guarded My Father’s commands and stay in His love. Footnote: 1See 14:15.
Joh 15:16 “You did not choose Me, but I chose you and appointed you that you should go and bear fruit, and that your fruit should remain, so that whatever you ask the Father in My Name He might give you.
Joh 15:18 “If the world hates you, you know that it hated Me before it hated you. 19 “If you were of the world, the world would love its own. But because you are not of the world, but I chose you out of the world, for that reason the world hates you. 20 “Remember the word that I said to you, ‘A servant is not greater than his master.’ If they persecuted Me, they shall persecute you too. If they have guarded My Word, they would guard yours too. 21 “But all this they shall do to you because of My Name, because they do not know Him who sent Me.
The 613 Mitzvot
We now continue to study the 613 laws of Torah which we can read at http://www.jewfaq.org/613.htm
We are doing 7 laws each week. We shall study laws 493-499
We also have commentary, with editing from me, again from http://theownersmanual.net/The_Owners_Manual_02_The_Law_of_Love.Torah
(493) Observe the procedure of the guilt-offering. “Likewise this is the law of the trespass offering (it is most holy): In the place where they kill the burnt offering they shall kill the trespass offering. And its blood he shall sprinkle all around on the altar. And he shall offer from it all its fat. The fat tail and the fat that covers the entrails, the two kidneys and the fat that is on them by the flanks, and the fatty lobe attached to the liver above the kidneys, he shall remove; and the priest shall burn them on the altar as an offering made by fire to Yahweh. It is a trespass offering. Every male among the priests may eat it. It shall be eaten in a holy place. It is most holy. (Leviticus 7:1-6) The guilt or trespass offering, the asham, is also covered in Leviticus 5:14-19, and we have discussed it in Mitzvot #482, #483, #484, #485, #486, and #491. The offenses for which it is offered are described in Chapter 5: concealing the nature of an oath someone has taken, touching the carcass of an unclean animal, touching “human uncleanness,” or making flippant oaths, whether for good or evil.
A separate category of “trespass” seems to be, “If a person commits a trespass, and sins unintentionally in regard to the holy things of Yahweh….” Precisely what these sins might be is not spelled out, but they have to do with the “holy things,” that is, the sanctuary, its dedicated furnishings, appurtenances, and utensils about which Yahweh gave such detailed instructions in the book of Exodus. Each item had symbolic significance, and all of it, one way or another, pointed toward our redemption through the atoning sacrifice of the coming Messiah. “Then he shall bring to Yahweh as his trespass offering a ram without blemish from the flocks, with your valuation in shekels of silver according to the shekel of the sanctuary, as a trespass offering. And he shall make restitution for the harm that he has done in regard to the holy thing, and shall add one-fifth to it and give it to the priest. So the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the trespass offering, and it shall be forgiven him.” (Leviticus 5:15-16) The requisite sacrifice is an unblemished ram—a male sheep—in contrast to the bulls or goats specified for the sin offering (the chata’t). Whereas goats speak of sin and bulls are symbolic of false doctrine, the ram is a picture of God’s Messiah and His atoning sacrifice. What does it all mean? I think Yahweh is telling us that even our ignorant offenses against Him are atoned for through the blood of Christ. The 120% restitution, however, tells us that our carelessness concerning the things of God can be costly to us. Notice that unlike the chata’t sacrifices for the sins of the priests and the congregation, the priests—representing all believers—can and do “profit” from the asham. They are to eat the asham sacrifices—not the fatty portions, which Yahweh instructs must be burned in His honor, but the meat itself. The lessons we learn through the repentance of our trespasses may be expensive, but in the end, they nourish our souls.
(494) Observe the procedure of the peace-offering. “This is the law of the sacrifice of peace offerings which he shall offer to Yahweh….” (Leviticus 7:11) The next six mitzvot will explore the “peace offering,” or selem, the last of the five distinct types of sacrifices discussed in the first seven chapters of Leviticus. (We have already seen the olah, minha, chata’t, and asham.) The peace offering is further explained in Leviticus 3 and 22:18-30. The selem (which is invariably used in the plural: selamim—peace offerings) was used for several different purposes: as a spontaneous expression of praise to Yahweh, to show one’s thanksgiving for answered prayer (e.g. I Samuel 1:24), to accompany a vow, or as a freewill offering to demonstrate one’s devotion. Both animal and grain offerings were made, and because the selamim were strictly voluntary, the rules were quite relaxed. Cattle, goats, or lambs could be brought, always unblemished but either male or female. As usual, the fatty portions were to be burned on the altar as a “sweet aroma to Yahweh.” The sacrifice itself was eaten by the worshipper and his family, with a portion—the right thigh and breast—going to the priest (7:32-33). Basically, the peace offering was a party, one whose guest of honor was Yahweh Himself.
Besides the animal sacrifices, grain was also offered up. “If he offers it for a thanksgiving, then he shall offer, with the sacrifice of thanksgiving, unleavened cakes mixed with oil, unleavened wafers anointed with oil, or cakes of blended flour mixed with oil.” No surprise there, but wait: “Besides the cakes, as his offering he shall offer leavened bread with the sacrifice of thanksgiving of his peace offering. And from it he shall offer one cake from each offering as a heave offering to Yahweh. It shall belong to the priest who sprinkles the blood of the peace offering.” (Leviticus 7:12-14) Leavened bread? Doesn’t that indicate the presence of sin? Yes, and it makes perfect sense here, because Yahweh doesn’t want us to feel that we have to have achieved a state of sinlessness before we can offer our gratitude and thanksgiving. He knows our condition. That’s why He provided for our redemption. But notice something: the worshipper doesn’t eat the unleavened bread; the priest does. Once again, we see that we are not to benefit or profit from our own sin. The leavened bread is “heaved” in symbolic dedication to Yahweh, as if to say, “I acknowledge my sin before You, and I thank You for rescuing me from its inevitable consequences.”
(495) Burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has remained over. “The flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offering for thanksgiving shall be eaten the same day it is offered. He shall not leave any of it until morning. But if the sacrifice of his offering is a vow [Hebrew neder: see Mitzvah #496] or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten the same day that he offers his sacrifice; but on the next day the remainder of it also may be eaten; the remainder of the flesh of the sacrifice on the third day must be burned with fire.” (Leviticus 7:15-17) What’s God’s policy on leftovers? It depends on the nature or purpose of the selem being offered. If it’s a thank offering, then He values spontaneity and promptness. In other words, if we have something for which we owe Yahweh thanksgiving, we should communicate our gratitude immediately. That’s why Paul told us to “Pray without ceasing,” I imagine. However, if the selem is being offered to show our earnestness in a vow we are making to Yahweh, then our own future actions are in view, not just what’s happening now in the realm of our best-laid intentions. So we partake of the sacrifice today, to celebrate our vow, and tomorrow, to commemorate the keeping of our promise. And the third day? No, if there’s anything still left over, it must be burned with fire. This tells us that if we procrastinate in fulfilling our vows, if we don’t take them as seriously as Yahweh does, then there is judgment in our future. We aren’t required to make promises to God, but if we do, we are expected to keep them.
(496) Do not eat of sacrifices that are eaten beyond the appointed time for eating them. “And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace offering is eaten at all on the third day, it shall not be accepted, nor shall it be imputed to him; it shall be an abomination to him who offers it, and the person who eats of it shall bear guilt.” (Leviticus 7:18) Continuing the thought of the previous mitzvah, we see God using even stronger language as a warning to those who would eat the selem on the third day or beyond, symbolic of taking their vows lightly. Maimonides seems to be thinking of the dangers of eating rancid meat, but Yahweh has bigger fish to fry. Allow me to extrapolate a bit. Psalm 22 described the horrors of the Messiah’s crucifixion—a thousand years before it took place. But in the context of the Messianic sacrifice, David sees this remarkable promise: “My praise shall be of You in the great congregation; I will pay my vows before those who fear Him.” (Psalm 22:25) The word translated “vows” here is neder, the very same word used in Leviticus 7:16 above to describe the “vow” under which the selem “shall not be accepted” if eaten on the third day. If the Messiah’s sacrifice on Golgotha had not taken place as God had vowed (on Passover, publicly before the congregation of Israel), we would still be lost in our sins. By the third day, His mission had already been fulfilled. The only reason any of us can even begin to contemplate the meaning of Yahweh’s magnificent Torah is that His Messiah paid His vows. He did what He promised to do, when He promised to do it, and because He did, we live.
(497) Do not eat of holy things that have become unclean. “The flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten. It shall be burned with fire. And as for the clean flesh, all who are clean may eat of it.” (Leviticus 7:19) Our context is still the “peace offerings,” the selamim. Since these were strictly voluntary, it follows that they are a good metaphor for God’s primary gift to mankind: choice. That is, we have been given the opportunity to choose Yahweh as our God, or not to. But make no mistake, how we may approach God remains His decision to make. Yahweh is a holy God—there is none beside Him. Therefore it is His right to insist that we are holy as well—clean, purified, and set apart for His purposes—if we are to enjoy a relationship with Him. Here He is reminding us that the world will be judged, and anything that has been “touched” by the world’s evil will be purged. On the other hand, we whom Yahweh has made pure and clean are thereby qualified to walk freely in the presence of our God. What Yahweh has cleansed is clean indeed.
(498) Burn meat of the holy sacrifice that has become unclean. “The flesh that touches any unclean thing shall not be eaten. It shall be burned with fire. And as for the clean flesh, all who are clean may eat of it.” (Leviticus 7:19) This is merely the usual negative rewording of the foregoing affirmative mitzvah. The point is clear enough: that which is unclean (by Yahweh’s definition) will be burned. That which is not set apart to Yahweh will be set apart from Him.
(499) A person who is unclean shall not eat of things that are holy. “But the person who eats the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace offering that belongs to Yahweh while he is unclean, that person shall be cut off from his people. Moreover the person who touches any unclean thing, such as human uncleanness, an unclean animal, or any abominable unclean thing, and who eats the flesh of the sacrifice of the peace offering that belongs to Yahweh, that person shall be cut off from his people.” (Leviticus 7:20-21) Continuing and explaining the previous thought, these verses detail what might make one “unclean” in the context of the selamim. Note first that the things mentioned are not “sins,” in the sense of being trespasses against Yahweh’s perfect moral standard. Rather, they are sources of ceremonial defilement—touching things that have been defined as being unclean. Again, we are reminded that it’s God’s prerogative to make the rules. A mouse (on the outside, anyway) may not be any less sanitary than a sheep, but it has been declared unclean by God’s law, whereas the sheep has not. We may think that we’re pretty good. In comparison with our average fellow man, we (in our imagination) are A-Okay. But Yahweh is reminding us here that His standard is perfection. We approach Him on His terms or not at all.
Under normal circumstances, of course, that should mean that “not at all” is our only option, for all of us have “fallen short of the glory of God.” But we were created for no other purpose than to have fellowship with Yahweh—to communicate with Him and reciprocate His love. The sin that separates us is no surprise to Him. He is quite aware of our fallen condition. But His agenda hasn’t changed. If we imperfect creatures desire to fulfill creation’s mandate, Yahweh has provided a way for us to do that—not by relaxing His standards, but instead by making us perfect. Hence the lesson of the peace offering. If God has defined us as being clean, then we are clean indeed, free to talk and walk with Yahweh unimpeded by our sin. But if we insist on defining “goodness” ourselves, we remain unclean, cut off from His people.
A side-by-side comparison of these five types of Levitical offerings may help to clarify their individual significance:
Type 1: Burnt Offering (olah) Leviticus 1:1-17; 6:8-13
What:Bulls, sheep, or goats—males without blemish—were specified. Turtledoves or young pigeons were also acceptable.
Who:The worshipper was to kill the olah and skin it (quadrupeds only—birds were killed by the priests.) The priests handled the blood, washing, the complete burning of the sacrifice (the olah was not eaten), and the removal of the ashes.
How:The worshipper brought his sacrifice to the sanctuary: bulls to the door, i.e., on the west side of the altar, and sheep to the north side of the altar. He was to place his hand on its head, symbolically transferring guilt, before he slew and skinned it. The priest was then to sprinkle the blood around the altar, wash the entrails and legs with water, and completely burn the whole animal upon the altar. Birds were slain by wringing their necks. The priests drained their blood near the altar, removed the crop and feathers (these were placed on the east side of the altar, where the ashes were gathered), split the bird into two connected halves, and burnt it on the altar.
Why:The olah was a voluntary sacrifice made for atonement, homage to Yahweh, and celebration before Him. Total dedication is implied, for the offering was to be completely consumed by fire. Abraham’s intended sacrifice of Isaac on Mount Moriah was called an olah, making the messianic message evident. Through it we are reminded that Yahshua’s self sacrifice for our redemption was not something He had to do, but was something He wanted to do, because He loved us. “Sacrifice and offering You did not desire…Burnt offering and sin offering You did not require.” (Psalm 40:6)
Type 2: Grain Offering (minha) Leviticus 2:1-16; 6:14-23
Mitzvot #476-479, 487-490
What:Fine flour was specified (that is, grain that has been crushed to powder and sifted or winnowed to remove the hulls or chaff—as distinct from “meal,” or whole grain). Olive oil, frankincense, and salt were incorporated in the minha. Leaven, or yeast, was specifically excluded, as was honey. The flour could be raw in bulk, or prepared as cakes, loaves, or wafers (in other words, cooked either in an oven, a covered pot, or a flat pan or griddle).
Who:The worshipper was to bring the offering to the priest at the sanctuary. It was he who poured the olive oil and added the frankincense and salt. The priest was to bring the minha to the altar, and was to eat what remained.
How:All of the frankincense was to be applied to the portion of the minha that was to be burned upon the altar. Only a handful was to be burned as a “memorial portion.” The rest was to serve as food for the priests. It was to be eaten in the court of the Tabernacle. Two special cases are mentioned for subsets of the grain offering: (1) the firstfruits offering was not to be burned, but was to be simply waved before Yahweh by the priests. (2) Conversely, on the occasion of the anointing of a new priest, the neophyte was to personally offer about two quarts of baked fine flour, half in the morning and the other half that evening—and this minha was to be completely burned on the altar.
Why:The minha was a memorial of the provision of all our needs by Yahweh. It began with grain, the bounty of the earth—that which sustains us in this world. The addition of oil symbolized the indwelling of the Holy Spirit in our lives, and the sprinkling of frankincense onto the portion of the offering that was to be burned on the altar spoke of the purity that God would provide through the sacrifice of Yahshua. Because no blood was shed, atonement was not in view; but the judgment of our works—the separation of the valuable from the worthless—was indicated by the removal of the chaff of the grain.
Type 3: Peace Offering (selem) Leviticus 3:1-17; 7:11-34
What:The selem was an animal sacrifice, either from the herd (cattle) or the flock (sheep or goats). It could be either male or female, but it had to be without blemish or defect. Also, if the reason for the selem was thanksgiving, unleavened cakes and leavened bread were to be included. The grain portion was to be prepared with oil.
Who:The worshipper and his family were to share the sacrifice with the priests, the latter receiving the breast and the right thigh. The fatty portions were to be removed and burned on the altar in honor of Yahweh by the priest.
How:The unusual thing about the selem was that the rules for eating “leftovers” varied depending on the purpose of the peace offering. If it was brought as an expression of thanksgiving, then the meat had to be eaten on the day of the sacrifice—spontaneity and immediacy were required. However, if the selem accompanied a vow, the sacrifice could also be eaten on the second day, an indication that both the vow and its fulfillment were taken seriously. But in no case was the meat to be eaten after the second day—three-day-old leftovers were to be completely burned with fire, a picture of judgment.
Why:The selem was always voluntary. It was offered as a spontaneous expression of praise to Yahweh, as a way to express one’s thanksgiving for answered prayer, to underscore the seriousness of a vow the worshipper was taking, or as a freewill offering to show one’s devotion.
Type 4: Sin Offering (chata’t) Leviticus 4:1-35; 6:24-30
Mitzvot #480, 481, 491, 492
What:If a priest’s sin or that of the whole congregation is in view, a young bull was sacrificed. For a ruler of the people, a male goat was slain. For an individual, a female goat or lamb was specified.
Who:The chata’t was brought by the guilty party, when he became aware of his transgression, to the priest to be sacrificed.
How:A sin offering was to be eaten only by the priests, and then only if they themselves were not culpable in the sin for which the chata’t was being offered. The meat belonged to the individual priest who performed the offering. The fatty parts were removed and burned on the altar in homage to Yahweh, but the carcass was taken out of the camp and burned there. Blood from the sacrifice was to be sprinkled seven times before the veil (that is, outside the door of the sanctuary), or applied with the priest’s finger to the horns of the altar.
Why:Blood sacrifices like the chata’t speak of atonement for sin, for the life is in the blood. Ultimately, Christ’s sacrifice is in view, but the specific animals to be brought by the different classes of Israelites are instructive of how our position in this world relates to our sin and its consequences. Bulls (brought by the priests or by the congregation at large) indicate false doctrines that lead to sin and death. Male goats represent the sins of those in positions of temporal authority—who exercise human governance in this world—surrogates for the coming King. And female goats or sheep (brought by ordinary citizens) speak of failure to heed the counsel of the Holy Spirit.
Type 5: Trespass Offering (asham) Leviticus 5:1-19; 7:1-10
Mitzvot #482-486, 493
What:Depending on the financial status of the worshipper, either a female lamb or goat, two turtledoves, or two young pigeons were to be offered. And if he was too poor even for that, he was to bring a tenth of an ephah (about two quarts) of fine flour, but unlike the minha, no oil or frankincense was to be added.
Who:The asham was to be eaten by the priests. As with the chata’t, the priest personally officiating was entitled to the meat and hide from the sacrifice (after removing the fatty parts, which, as always, were burned on the altar as Yahweh’s portion). Grain offerings, however, were to be shared among all the priests.
How:The little details concerning the asham conspire to teach us about Yahweh’s grace and mercy. As with the olah, here is sliding scale of sacrifice value based on one’s wealth or lack of it. We are specifically instructed not to remove the head of a sacrificed bird from its body. We are told not to add oil or frankincense to a grain asham. All these things underscore the fact that even though Yahweh is perfect and holy, requiring absolute perfection of those who would approach Him, His entire agenda is focused on providing that perfection for us—regardless of our station in life—with His whole being, head and heart, and even if we have sinned purely by accident and never even realize our trespass!
Why:The asham is provided for our “mistakes,” our offenses in holiness (as the chata’t covers our “sins,” our lapses in behavior). As we walk through this world, it is practically impossible to remain perfectly set apart from it (as Israel was supposed to be) or to fulfill our mandate to be called out from within it (as the Ekklesia, the Church, is supposed to be.) Yahweh made us. He knows our frailty. He realizes that any perfection we have must be provided by Him, for it is not something we can muster in our fallen state, no matter how hard we try, no matter how much we would like to. That cloak of perfection is freely bestowed upon us through the sacrifice of His Messiah, Yahshua. All we have to do is put it on.
Thus we have seen five types of sacrifices or offerings described in detail in the first seven chapters of Leviticus. But we should be familiar enough with Yahweh’s patterns by now to expect not five, but seven. I believe the sixth category of offerings is the “drink offering” or nesek. This offering was most fully described in this passage: “When you have come into the land you are to inhabit, which I am giving to you, and you make an offering by fire to Yahweh, a burnt offering or a sacrifice, to fulfill a vow or as a freewill offering or in your appointed feasts, to make a sweet aroma to Yahweh, from the herd or the flock, then he who presents his offering to Yahweh shall bring a grain offering of one-tenth of an ephah of fine flour mixed with one-fourth of a hin of oil; and one-fourth of a hin [about a quart] of wine as a drink offering you shall prepare with the burnt offering or the sacrifice, for each lamb. Or for a ram you shall prepare as a grain offering two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with one-third of a hin of oil; and as a drink offering you shall offer one-third of a hin [about one and a half quarts] of wine as a sweet aroma to Yahweh. And when you prepare a young bull as a burnt offering, or as a sacrifice to fulfill a vow, or as a peace offering to Yahweh, then shall be offered with the young bull a grain offering of three-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with half a hin of oil; and you shall bring as the drink offering half a hin [about half a gallon] of wine as an offering made by fire, a sweet aroma to Yahweh.” (Numbers 15:2-10)
Type 6: Drink Offering (nesek) Numbers 15:2-10, 28:7
(Not specifically addressed by Maimonides)
What:Wine was to be offered up in conjunction with any animal sacrifice, whether an olah, asham, chata’t, or selem. It would accompany the grain component that was mixed with oil, and there was to be the same amount of wine as there was oil. The amount of wine (and oil) varied with the size of the sacrificial animal, about a quart for a lamb or goat, up to twice that amount for a bull.
Who:As with most offerings, the worshipper would supply the wine and the priest would attend to its ritual.
How:The wine was to be poured out at the time of the sacrifice, presumably upon the altar, for the libation was said to be a “sweet aroma to Yahweh.”
Why:Although the Torah says nothing about what the pouring out of wine might mean, all four Gospels tie it directly to the blood of Yahshua that was poured out for us at Calvary. The fact that the same amount of oil and wine were specified ties Yahshua’s blood to the work of the Holy Spirit.
The Torah is full of descriptive terminology for various facets of sacrifice and offering, many of which we haven’t explored. They aren’t necessarily all separate things, however, but may be used to emphasize one feature or another. For example, Moses used several of these terms in giving this instruction to the Israelites about to enter the Land: “But you shall seek the place where Yahweh your God chooses, out of all your tribes, to put His name for His dwelling place; and there you shall go. There you shall take your  burnt offerings, your  sacrifices, your  tithes, the  heave offerings of your hand, your  vowed offerings, your  freewill offerings, and the  firstborn of your herds and flocks. And there you shall eat before Yahweh your God, and you shall rejoice in all to which you have put your hand, you and your households, in which Yahweh your God has blessed you.” (Deuteronomy 12:5-7)
(1) Olah: a burnt offering, the whole sacrificial animal being completely consumed by fire. This is one of the basic types of Levitical sacrifice we’ve already reviewed.
(2) Zebah: a sacrifice—an offering that is killed as an act of worship, expiation, or propitiation to a deity; meat that is killed for consumption at a feast. Zebah is a catch all term for any animal sacrifice.
(3) Ma’aser: the tithe, the tenth part, goods or money given as an offering. This was a special class of offering designed to fund the operation of the temple and feed the poor. See Mitzvot #394, 397, 399, and 402-425.
(4) T’rumah: an offering, a contribution, a heave offering. T’rumah was also the word used for the tithe the Levites paid to the Aaronic priesthood from the tithes they had received from the people of Israel.
(5) Neder: a vow or the votive offering that consecrates it. This would be a subset of the selem, or peace offering.
(6) Nedabah: a freewill offering, that which is voluntary, not compulsory, and is prompted only by the impulse of the donor. This is a descriptive term for the voluntary nature of the peace offering (selem) as well as the burnt offering (olah).
(7) Bekor: firstborn animals or men, set aside to Yahweh. This, I believe, represents the seventh and final classification of offerings to Yahweh.
Type 7: Firstborn Offering (bekor) Exodus 13:11-13, Leviticus 27:26, Numbers 3:40
Mitzvot #368-371, 403, 410, 413
What:The firstborn male of every Israelite family belonged to Yahweh, as did every animal owned by an Israelite. Clean animals (sheep, goats, cattle, etc.) were to be sacrificed. Donkeys (and presumably other unclean animals such as horses or camels) were to be substituted with lambs, or their necks were to be broken. But clean animals were to be eaten.
Who:Firstborn male children belonged to Yahweh, but they were to be redeemed by paying the Priestly tribe of Levi five silver shekels. The tribe of Levi thus were Yahweh’s designated substitutes for the firstborn of the other eleven tribes.
How:The whole scenario was based on the original Passover, when the firstborn males of all the households that weren’t sheltered by the blood of the lamb were slain. According to Exodus 13, the slaying of the firstborn animals was designed to elicit questions from Israelite children about the meaning of the rite, giving parents the perfect opportunity to explain Yahweh’s deliverance—both past, present, and future.
Why:The slain firstborn son was a metaphor for Yahweh’s own “firstborn,” who would be slain to save men from the consequences of their own transgressions, just as the Passover lamb’s blood was shed to identify those who were under God’s protection. The picture couldn’t be any clearer if God Himself had painted the blood on the tree and its crosspiece with His own hands. As a matter of fact that’s precisely what He did—on the tree of life on the Mount of Olives.