The Sapphire Beneath His Feet

Joseph F. Dumond

Isa 6:9-12 And He said, Go, and tell this people, You hear indeed, but do not understand; and seeing you see, but do not know. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their hearts, and turn back, and be healed. Then I said, Lord, how long? And He answered, Until the cities are wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land laid waste, a desolation, and until Jehovah has moved men far away, and the desolation in the midst of the land is great.
Published: Apr 8, 2022
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News Letter 5858-006
The 6th Year of the 4th Sabbatical Cycle The 3rd Tithe Year
The 27th year of the 120th Jubilee Cycle
The 6th day of the 2nd month 5858 years after the creation of Adam
The 4th Sabbatical Cycle after the 119th Jubilee Cycle
The Sabbatical Cycle of Sword, Famines, and Pestilence
The 21st day of Counting the Omer

April 8, 2022

Shabbat Shalom to the Royal Family of Yehovah,

Shabbat Zoom Meeting

There are many people in need of fellowship and who are sitting at home on the Sabbath with no one to talk to or debate with. I want to encourage all of you to join us on Shabbat, and to invite others to come and join us as well. If the time is not convenient then you can listen to the teaching and the midrash after on our YouTube channel.

What are we doing and why do we teach this way?

We are going to discuss both sides of an issue and then let you choose. It is the work of the Ruach (Spirit) to direct and to teach you.

The medieval commentator Rashi wrote that the Hebrew word for wrestle (avek) implies that Jacob was “tied”, for the same word is used to describe knotted fringes in a Jewish prayer shawl, the tzitzityot. Rashi says, “thus is the manner of two people who struggle to overthrow each other, that one embraces the other and knots him with his arms”.

Our intellectual wrestling has been replaced by a different kind of struggle. We are Wrestling with Yehovah as we grapple with His Word. It is an intimate act, symbolizing a relationship in which Yehovah and I and you are bound together. My wrestling is a struggle to discover what Yehovah expects of us, and we are “tied” to the One who assists us in that struggle.

Today, many say Israel means “Champion of God”, or better — the “Wrestler of God”.

Our Torah sessions each Shabbat teach you and encourage you to constantly challenge, question, argue against, as well as view alternative views and explanations of the Word. In other words, we are to “wrestle with the Word” to get to the truth. Jews worldwide believe that you need to wrestle with the Word and constantly challenge Dogma, Theology, and views or else you will never get to the Truth.

We are not like most churches where “The preacher talks and everyone listens.” We encourage everyone to participate, to question and to contribute what they know on the subject being discussed. We want you to be a champion wrestler of the Word of Yehovah. We want you to wear the title of Israel, knowing that you not only know but are capable to explain why you know the Torah to be true with logic and facts.

We have a few rules though. Let others talk and listen. There is no discussion about UFO’s Nephilim, Vaccines or conspiracy-type subjects. We have people from around the world with different world views. Not everyone cares who is the President of any particular country. Treat each other with respect as Fellow wrestlers of the word. Some of our subjects are hard to understand and require you to be mature and if you do not know, then listen to gain knowledge and understanding and hopefully wisdom. The very things you are commanded to ask Yehovah for and He gives to those who ask.

Jas 1:5  But if any of you lacks wisdom, let him ask of God, who gives to all liberally and with no reproach, and it shall be given to him.

We hope you can invite those who want to keep Torah to come and join us by hitting the link below. It is almost like a Torah teaching fellowship talk show with people from around the world taking part and sharing their insights and understandings.

We start off with some music and then some prayers and it’s as though you were sitting around the kitchen back in Newfoundland having a cup of coffee and all of us enjoying each other’s company. I hope you will grace us with your company someday.

Sabbath services begin April 9 at 12:30 PM EDT we will be doing prayers songs and teaching from this hour.

Shabbat Services will begin at 1:15 pm Eastern.

We look forward to you joining our family and getting to know us as we get to know you.

Joseph Dumond is inviting you to a scheduled Zoom meeting.
Topic: Joseph Dumond’s Personal Meeting Room
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Septennial Torah Portion

If you go to Torah Portion at our archived section, you can then go to the 5th year which is the 5th year of the Sabbatical Cycle, the one we are in now, as we state at the top of every News Letter. There you can scroll down to March 25, 2022, and see that this Shabbat we could very well be midrashing about

Exodus 35

Jeremiah 3-4

Proverbs 7

Acts 5

If you missed last week’s exciting discoveries as we studied that section you can go and watch past Shabbats on our media section.

Counting the Omer

Today is the seventh day of the third week of seven weeks. Today is the twenty-first day of the counting of fifty days from the day of the waving of the Omer on the morrow after the Sabbath. Today is Sabbath, the third Sabbath of seven Sabbaths. Today completes the third week of seven weeks.

Psa 67:1 Elohim does favour us and bless us, Cause His face to shine upon us. Selah.
Psa 67:2 For Your way to be known on earth, Your deliverance among all nations.
Psa 67:3 Let the peoples praise You, O Elohim, Let all the peoples praise You.
Psa 67:4 Let the nations be glad and sing for joy! For You judge the peoples uprightly, And lead the nations on earth. Selah.
Psa 67:5 Let the peoples praise You, O Elohim; Let all the peoples praise You.
Psa 67:6 The earth shall give her increase; Elohim, our own Elohim, blesses us!
Psa 67:7 Elohim blesses us! And all the ends of the earth fear Him!

Day Twenty-One | Dedication To the Law of Yehovah | Psalm 119:161-

161 Rulers have persecuted me without a cause, but at Your Word my heart stood in awe. (Psalm )119:161
162 I rejoice at Your Word as one who finds great treasure. (Psalm 119:162)
163 I have hated falsehood and loathe it, Your Torah I have loved. (Psalm 119:163)
164 I have praised You seven times a day, because of Your righteous right-rulings. (Psalm )119:164
165 Great peace have those loving Your Torah, and for them there is no stumbling-block. (Psalm )119:165
166 Yehovah I have waited for Your deliverance, and I have done Your commands. (Psalm 119:166)
167 My being has guarded Your witnesses, and I love them exceedingly. (Psalm 119:167)
168 I have guarded Your orders and Your witnesses, for all my ways are before You. (Psalm 119:168)


Today is the first day of the fourth week of seven weeks. Today is the twenty-second day of the counting of fifty days from the day of the waving of the Omer on the morrow after the Sabbath.

Psa 67:1  Elohim does favour us and bless us, Cause His face to shine upon us. Selah.
Psa 67:2  For Your way to be known on earth, Your deliverance among all nations.
Psa 67:3  Let the peoples praise You, O Elohim, Let all the peoples praise You.
Psa 67:4  Let the nations be glad and sing for joy! For You judge the peoples uprightly, And lead the nations on earth. Selah.
Psa 67:5  Let the peoples praise You, O Elohim; Let all the peoples praise You.
Psa 67:6  The earth shall give her increase; Elohim, our own Elohim, blesses us!
Psa 67:7  Elohim blesses us! And all the ends of the earth fear Him!

Day Twenty-Two | A Prayer For Help | Psalm 119:169-176

169 My cry comes before You, O Yehovah. Make me understand according to Your Word. (Psalm )119:169
170 Let my prayer come before You. Deliver me according to Your Word. (Psalm 119:170)
171 My lips pour forth praise, for You teach me Your laws. (Psalm 119:171)
172 My tongue sings of Your Word, for all Your commands are righteousness. (Psalm 119:172)
173 Your hand is a help to me, for I have chosen Your orders. (Psalm 119:173)
174 I have longed for Your deliverance, O Yehovah, and Your Torah is my delight. (Psalm 119:174)
175 My being lives, and it praises You; and Your right-rulings help me. (Psalm 119:175)
176 I have strayed like a lost sheep. Seek Your servant, for I have not forgotten Your commands. (Psalm 119:176)

The 1st of the Year When Was It?

Passover is now a month behind us. Randy and I will have made our way home from what has become a trip of a lifetime for both of us and one that has deeply affected both of us. Trying to find the words to describe it has been very hard.

So let me share two things this week as I grabble with finding the words to describe what has taken place. We did not get to finish our tour with us going to Nuweiba beach where the Israelites crossed over the Red Sea. I tested positive two times for COVID on a PCR test and was denied entry into Israel on the return leg of our trip.

It was this PCR testing that we feared the entire time as we were going from the USA to Canada, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Egypt and then back to Israel and Canada and finally the USA. All of them required PCR tests just a few weeks before we left. Then no one required them except Israel once we began our quest.

So Randy had to leave me in Jordan to go and get our rental car and return it to the Airport in Tel Aviv. This also messed up our checking the fields for a final time to show the state of the barley. In spite of this our reports on the barley and our visit to Mount Sinai have been reaching many people and causing a stir.

So although I am in isolation in my room, until my flight out through Amman Jordan, I am in an ongoing debate discussion about the barley with those who can influence many others and I hope to remove the Takanot they have employed which is causing them to now be in consternation about the state of the barley NOW at the end of the 13th month. It is still not at a stage where they believe it should be. Yoels reports says so, Devorah’s does too. They DO NOT have fields of ripe mature barely to begin the year.

As such, Bruce Brill is calling for an Adar Gimmel. We have an Adar which is the 12th month. We then have Adar Bet which is the 12th month a second time. And Adar Gimmel would be the 12th month a 3rd time. When he went to the Rabbis, about this and asked them they had no record of ever having an Adar Gimmel. But still, everywhere he is looking there is no Barley that is close to Aviv. None, Nada as he explained to me.

He is saying they need to add another month because he can’t find any barley in the south and west to Ashdod area.

He heard of our report and wanted to talk to me. Bruce has been searching for barley for 25 years I think he said. He knows about the barley.

I explained we were on our way into Saudi Arabia and would talk afterwards and take him to the fields. Then after I was denied entry I called Bruce and we began to talk. I had Becca’s follow-up reports as well as ours we did on Wave Sheaf Day.

But because they were not full fields, and using their Takanot, they could not accept our claims that Passover was in March. They know it has been a different year. But they are not yet understanding why.

And even as I write this in Jordan, Becca has just sent me an update from the field and it is already shattering as of Tuesday, April 5, 2022.

He has been sent this report along with maps from Becca through me.
Bruce did say one thing that is important to understand. They had thought the whole nation had to make the Wave Sheaf Offering. I am telling them it is done on behalf of the entire nation and only one field or enough to make an Omer offering is all that is needed. It is done on behalf of all the people.

So there you have it, brethren. Those who are now keeping Passover are doing so at the wrong time in the wrong month of April. We are now officially in the 2nd month. The problem with all these people is going to be to admit they were wrong and that they have sinned by not keeping Passover last month nor the 7 days of Unleavened Bread. Yes, it is sin to not keep the days Holy at the proper time. It is no different than keeping Sunday as your weekly Sabbath instead of Saturday from sunset Friday to sunset Saturday. It is sin if you do not keep the appointed times at the proper time as Yehovah demanded us to do.

This is why this was and is so important to understand. You can try and argue it away, or reason it with your misunderstood Josephus or the Dead Sea scrolls or Enoch or jubilee Calendars. If you are not obeying Yehovah and keeping His Days when He said to keep them, then you are sinning and He does not hear the prayers of Sinners.

We are near the end of this age. We are about to be punished. Those who do not obey will be killed. Yes, that includes the brethren. Read what you are told in Revelation.

Rev 12:13  And when the dragon saw that he was cast to the earth, he persecuted the woman who bore the man child .

Rev 12:14  And two wings of a great eagle were given to the woman, so that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time and times and half a time, from the serpent’s face.

Rev 12:15  And the serpent cast out of his mouth water like a flood after the woman, so that he might cause her to be carried away by the river.

Rev 12:16  And the earth helped the woman. And the earth opened its mouth and swallowed up the river which the dragon cast out of his mouth.

Rev 12:17  And the dragon was enraged over the woman, and went to make war with the rest of her seed, who keep the commandments of God and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.

Again and again, I ask you to stop and think. Why did those people who keep the commandments and had the testimony of Yehshua, not flee with the woman into the wilderness? WHY DID THEY STAY BEHIND? They keep the commandments and yet they did not flee.

It is, I believe because they are still fighting over which calendar to use for Passover. Whether Hillel or the Barley crescent moon and then whether you need a takanot field full of barley or a takanot of all the fields being Aviv at the same time or whether you need just an omers worth to begin the month of Aviv as we do.

If this was the year to flee, then like me, we would have already been at Mount Sinai, as Randy and I were, while everyone else was saying there was no barley and thinking they had another month as they did in Israel this year.

If I have time, before my flight I will post anything else Becca Shares with us from her report.

A New Discovery at Mount Sinai

Because the resources I use in this report will be dismissed as nonsense, they will then be able to dismiss the conclusions as well. All so that they can continue to worship at the Wailing Wall. But until you get away from the traditions and begin to look at the facts, you will never come to understand the truths hidden in plain site.

I hope this teaching is a blessing to those willing to get outside the box.

I am beside myself trying to describe what Randy Cates and I have just done. We climbed to the summit of Mount Sinai. We saw the Golden Calf Altar and the petroglyphs on it of the gods Apis and Hathor. We also saw other Petroglyphs closer to Mount Sinai with more of the same abominations on them. We saw the split rock. We saw the place where Solomon set up a monument marking where Israel came out of the Red Sea after crossing it on the 7th day of Unleavened Bread. We drove the wadi they would have walked up from there to the plain where they camped before heading for the 12 wells and 70 palm trees. We saw the place where Moses drew water for Jethro’s sheep and defended his flocks. We saw the things written on our pages up close and can’t believe just how huge they actually were.

We spent so much time there and still did not get done all the things we wanted to do. And now having been there once, we must go back and finish those things along with what I am going to share with you all today. What I am sharing today has haunted me since I learned it after we came down from Mount Sinai.

I shared this last Sabbath with some of you in our group and so this is going to be a repeat but it is still such a great repeat to do.

Chuck and Connie Holton raced up the Moutain and were entering the plateau area before most of the rest of us were even getting started. They then went on to the summit. It was a long and difficult day for the rest of us climbing the mountain. It was rough and unforgiving. It is easy to get seriously hurt or killed on this Mountain and yet we all charged up it like eager naive children.

Each person had their own agenda for coming here. They had their own understandings and emotions for being here. I was no different. All of us had no idea just how big a deal this was both physically and emotionally.

This is Mount Sinai at sunrise. the Blackened tip is the Summit.


This is Mount Sinai as we approached it for our climb.

You can see Elijah’s cave and between the rock at the very top a tree that we are calling the burning bush. It was not burning and we have no idea if that is the same area as spoken of in the Bible.

Randy Cates and I near the Altar Moses built, eager to get going. This is our before picture.

And this is us coming down. Those are fake smiles. We were both hurting and thirsty.

11 hours later after we made it back down just after dark we were thankful to be down and alive. A number of others were still coming down in the dark with flashlights. We finally left the mountain about 11 PM dead tired.

When we got down, Chuck showed me two pictures he had taken at the summit which stunned me and the more I thought about it, the more stunned I became at what he had seen. I never saw it but I am keen to go back and look again.

My interest is simple. LOL, it is never simple.

Exo 24:9 And Moses went up, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel.
Exo 24:10 And they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, and as the essence of the heavens for clearness.
Exo 24:11 And upon the nobles of the sons of Israel He did not lay his hands. Also they saw God, and ate and drank.

Rev 4:1 After these things I looked, and behold, a door was opened in Heaven. And the first voice which I heard was as it were of a trumpet talking with me, saying, Come up here, and I will show you what must occur after these things.
Rev 4:2 And immediately I became in spirit. And behold, a throne was set in Heaven, and One sat upon the throne.
Rev 4:3 And He who sat there looked like a jasper stone and a sardius. And a rainbow was around the throne, looking like an emerald.


Eze 1:25 And there was a voice from the expanse which was over their heads, in their standing still, and they let down their wings.
Eze 1:26 And from above the expanse that was over their heads was a likeness like a sapphire stone, the likeness of a throne. And on the likeness of the throne was a likeness looking like a man on it from above.
Eze 1:27 And I saw Him looking like the color of polished bronze, looking like fire all around within it. From the likeness of His loins even upward, and from the likeness of His loins even downward, I saw Him, looking like fire, and it had brightness all around.
Eze 1:28 As the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain looks, so the brightness all around looked. This was how the likeness of the glory of Jehovah looked. And I saw. And I fell on my face, and I heard a voice of One speaking.

Eze 10:1 And I looked, and behold! In the expanse over the head of the cherubs was seen the appearance of the form of a throne, like a sapphire stone, above them.

These are the scriptures I am looking at.
But the main one is the description of when the 70 elders met with Yehovah and ate with Him.
So the place where they took the picture of the stones is important to note.

of a sapphire stone: The Hebrew sappir, is without doubt the sapphire; which is a most beautiful precious stone of a fine blue colour, second only to the diamond in lustre, hardness, and value. The ancient oriental sapphire is supposed to have been the same as the lapis lazuli. It glitters with golden spots; and is of an azure or sky-blue colour, but rarely intermixed with purple. The ruby and topaz are considered of the same genus. Eze 1:26-27, Eze 10:1; Rev 4:3, Rev 21:19-23

in his clearness: Son 6:10; Mat 17:2; Rev 1:16, Rev 21:11, Rev 21:18

Rev 21:18  And the foundation of its wall was jasper; and the city was pure gold, like clear glass.

Rev 21:19  And the foundations of the wall of the city had been adorned with every precious stone. The first foundation, jasper; the second, sapphire; the third, chalcedony; the fourth, emerald;

Rev 21:20  the fifth, sardonyx; the sixth, sardius; the seventh, chrysolite; the eighth, beryl; the ninth, topaz; the tenth, chrysoprasus; the eleventh, hyacinth; the twelfth, amethyst.

On top of this I have carried with me this legend of which I cannot validate.

I was told that when the Al Aqsa Mosque was built it was first built at its present location by the Ummayad Caliph Abd al-Malik and his son al-Walid, and completed in 705 CE. The story I was told by the Angel on the Temple Mount who related it to me is this way.

During his stay in Jerusalem, Umar was led by Sophronius to various holy sites, including the Temple Mount. Seeing the poor state of where the Temple once stood, Umar ordered the area cleared of refuse and debris before having a wooden mosque built on the site.[16] The earliest account of such a structure is given by the Gallic bishop Arculf, who visited Jerusalem between 679 and 682, and describes a very primitive house of prayer able to accommodate up to 3,000 worshippers, constructed of wooden beams and boards over preexisting ruins.[29]

More than half a century after the capture of Jerusalem, in 691, the Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of the Dome of the Rock over a large outcropping of bedrock on the Temple Mount. The 10th-century historian al-Maqdisi wrote that Abd al-Malik built the shrine in order to compete in grandeur with the city’s Christian churches. Whatever the intention, the impressive splendor and scale of the shrine is seen as having helped significantly in solidifying the attachment of Jerusalem to the early Muslim faith.[16]

This angel, this messenger told me that Umar first went to the Bishop of Jerusalem and asked him where the Temple of Solomon once stood. The Bishop took him to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and after reading his Holy Books told the bishop this was not the place and that he should take him to the true place where Solomons Temple once stood. The Bishop then led him to just outside what is now Zion Gate, (which was not built until 1540 AD). Again Umar read his scriptures and again saw this could not be the place. He threatened to kill the Bishop unless he told him the truth. To which the bishop then led him to what is today the City of David.

Umar read his scriptures and then read some more and believed that this was indeed the place. He had his soldiers clear the area of debris and found a blue stone that is believed to have been placed beneath the Ark in the tabernacle.

He took this stone and placed it in the Qibly of the Al Aqsa Mosque and then used the stones from Solomons Temple to build the mosque. The name of the stone from Solomons temple were then transferred to the Mosque and over time it became known as Solomons Temple.

I had read this in the book by Ernest Martin The Temples Jerusalem Forgot and now this angel was saying the same thing to me. I have met this same angel on the Temple Mount now three times.

It was not until I saw the two pictures that I began to recall that stone which was supposed to have been what the Ark sat upon and that it was blue in colour. I cannot prove this. I have zero proofs. Just what I have heard but cannot prove.

And now we discovered these blue-like stones on the edge of Mount Sinai where the elders in Exodus 24 described that there was a blue-like colour like Sapphir under His feet upon the Mountain.

Does such a stone exist in the Al Aqsa Mosque? Is there proof that the Ark sat upon such a stone? Was a stone from Mount Sinai taken which had this blue in it to be used in the Tabernacle and placed under where the Ark would sit?

I do not have an answer for any of these questions. But I sure would like to rent a helicopter and go back to Mount Sinai and do a complete search of the Mountain. I am now in serious need of a sponsor for this search.

I have found the story I was looking for.

The Medieval Historical and Geographical “Key” Unlocking the Location of the Temples
There is a major “key” that (if applied) can be of prime significance in identifying the true Temple site of God. This “key” is a historical truism vouched for by several eyewitness accounts of competent scholars from the time of Omar the Second Caliph (638 C.E.) to the historical evaluations of the first class Jewish historian Azariah De’ Rossi who wrote as late as 1577 C.E. If modern historians and theologians will pay attention to this initial factor and subsequent ones that I will present (and let them serve as “deal points” in showing historical and geographical truths – which they all demonstrate), these facts will aid us in wading through the murky and sometime contradictory writers of Jewish literature beginning in the seventh century and thriving for the next thousand years that have confused Jewish scholars. The prime “key” is very clear. The first illustration of the “key” is not of Jewish origin. It is the observations a Christian archbishop who wrote a history about a main Jewish return to Jerusalem took place at the time of Omar the Second Caliph in 638 C.E. This historical account reveals a “deal point” of factual geographical knowledge that is recorded by the first Christian Arabic author and church leader by the name of Eutychius (Arabic name: Said Ibn Bitriq) who wrote his historical work in 876 C.E. He stated how Omar and Sophronius (the Christian archbishop of Jerusalem) originally came to a final recognition of the true site of the Jewish Temples in Jerusalem. In my new book mentioned above, I present the details about the conversations recorded by Eutychius that took place between Omar and Sophronius. If you have read my book, you will recall that there were three sites shown Omar by Sophronius as contenders for the place where the former Jewish Temples stood. Yet, it was the final place (the third site) that was eventually selected by Omar as the real area of the Jewish Temple. The first two places that Sophronius showed Omar (when Sophronius gave false identifications that the Caliph did not accept) were rightly aborted.

This third place suggested by Sophronius that Omar finally accepted was an area over the Gihon Spring. This former Temple site had a particular (and even a unique) architectural history associated with it that none of the other areas in Jerusalem possessed. Eutychius gave us a primary identifying “key” (that later Jews also recognized) that singled out this true site of the Temples. The “key” point of knowledge was the fact that the Romans from the year 70 C.E. to the time of Constantine (for 260 years) HAD NEVER CONSTRUCTED ANY BUILDINGS of their own on the site of the Jewish Temples. Eutychius made this statement as a standard sign of identification that all people in Jerusalem recognized. He went even further. Eutychius said it was also realized that the later Byzantine Christians from the fourth to the seventh centuries HAD AS WELL NEVER CONSTRUCTED ANY BUILDINGS of their own upon the site. These two evaluations eliminate the area of the Haram esh-Sharif from being considered as a proper Temple site because in 876 C.E. (even when Eutychius wrote) there was an Al Aqsa Mosque within the Haram and the structure called the Dome of the Rock was also there.

This means that Sophronius was informing Omar in 638 C.E. (that for over 300 years since the time of Constantine) there had been no buildings of any kind constructed by the former Gentiles who controlled Jerusalem on the site of the Temples in Jerusalem. Consequently, there were no ruins in the area that could have come from the Romans or Byzantines. What we discover is the simple fact that the Romans and the Byzantines left the whole region of the former Temples to be a unique “Jewish area” in Jerusalem between the year 70 C.E. and 638 C.E. (for 568 years). They had a specific reason for not building within the region. Early Christians said it was to sustain the reliability of the prophecy of Christ that the Temple area would remain in ruins with no stone on another. Note the words written by Eutychius (translation is by F.E.Peters). 2


“Then Omar [Umar in Arabic] said to him [to Sophronius]: ‘You owe me a rightful debt. Give me a place in which I might build a sanctuary [masjid”a prayer shrine”].’ The patriarch said to him: ‘I will give to the Commander of the Faithful a place to build a sanctuary where the kings of Rum [the Romans] WERE UNABLE TO BUILD. It is a rock where God spoke to Jacob and which Jacob called the Gate of Heaven and the Israelites the Holy of Holies. It is the center of the world and was a Temple for the Israelites…. [And], the Byzantines neglected it [that is, the Byzantines left the site empty] and did not hold it in veneration, NOR DID THEY BUILD A CHURCH OVER IT” (capitalization and bracketed words mine). These were well-known facts being told Omar by Sophronius.
The Gentile Romans and Byzantines deliberately shied away from building on the spot in order for the prophecy of Christ to remain in fulfillment. So, they left the southeast section of Jerusalem empty of any major buildings (where the former City of David had been at the original Mount Zion). Oh yes, we do have a few Christian records that the desolation of the area had been graced on occasion by a ramshackle hut or a temporary covering for some Roman farmers who once watched over some crops that once grew in the region. Other than these few temporary and isolated agricultural shelters (none of them ever lasted more than a few seasons of farming), there were NO PERMANENT BUILDINGS constructed by the Romans or Byzantines within the area of the Temple Mount (there were no churches, no holy shrines and no government buildings). This was the clear teaching of Eutychius. This fact becomes a “key” sign (a “deal point”) because there are two later writers (one in 1235, another in 1577) testifying the same.

Once it is recognized that NO ROMAN or BYZANTINE buildings had ever been built in the region of the former Jewish Temples up to the time of Omar the Second Caliph, then the actions that Omar and his successors undertook at Jerusalem begin to make sense in their dealings with the inhabitants of Jerusalem in the early Arabic period. This fact recorded by Eutychius becomes a prime “key” or “deal point.” And though the records show that Omar and Sophronius witnessed ruins of buildings in the area where the former Jewish Temples were once located (and even the fourth century Archbishop of Jerusalem named Cyril said there were Jewish ruins in his time), 3 those remains were reckoned by those in the seventh century to be ruins of Jewish buildings that were part of a previous Temple rebuilt in the time of Constantine and Julian.

Omar Selected a Portable Stone from the Constantine/Julian Temple Ruins for his Qiblah
It was from among these Jewish ruins that Omar was shown the special stone that he took out of the ground and had it carried into the Al Aqsa Mosque that he was beginning to construct. This stone was a portable one. He set it up at the southern end of his mosque to serve as the pointing device (the Qiblah) that directed Muslims to face Mecca. This portable stone certainly WAS NOT that rock under the Dome of the Rock within the Haram esh-Sharif because that stationary “rock outcropping” is a part of the bedrock formation on the northeastern ridge. The Dome of the Rock was also the former area of the majestic Church of the Holy Wisdom. That Church had specifically been built over that particular “oblong rock.” This was because Christians from the sixth century onward reckoned that this “Rock” had been the site of the Praetorium where Jesus was judged by Pilate. The footprint of Jesus was embossed into the surface of that “oblong stone.” 8

Indeed, Sophronius as an eyewitness even wrote a poem while he was a young man about that Church of the Holy Wisdom and its accompanying Stone (the special “oblong” Rock) that later became the center piece of the Dome of the Rock. But, the Persians and Jews (about 24 years before the discussion between Sophronius and Omar) destroyed that Church of the Holy Wisdom. This obliteration was in 614 C.E. Still, everyone in Jerusalem knew at the time that that particular area of rock outcropping within the Haram esh-Sharif WAS ONCE the site of the former Praetorium and also the famous Church of the Holy Wisdom. This fact alone disqualifies the Dome of the Rock area from being the place that Sophronius was showing Omar. The stone that Omar selected was from a “Jewish area” where the Temples had been. The later historical records show that the place where the portable stone of Omar was found was at the Temple area over the Gihon Spring. That area was NEVER BUILT UPON by the Romans or Byzantines.What Omar did was to take a portable stone (a single stone) from the area of the Gihon Spring and re-positioned it within his new mosque that he started to construct at the southern end of the Haram esh-Sharif. That stone became the Qibla [the pillar stone that pointed the faithful Muslims to pray toward Mecca]. The reason Omar selected the southern part of the Haram esh-Sharif is because it fit all of the parameters that he had witnessed in his vision that Muhammad had supposedly given to him about his “Night Journey” from the “Farthest Mosque” into heaven. That is the location in Jerusalem that Omar selected to build his Mosque. It is highly significant and of utmost importance to recognize that Omar gave no spiritual accolades whatever to the “Rock” under the Dome of the Rock at the time, and no other Caliph did until the time of Abn al-Malik near the end of the seventh century. Indeed, Omar rejected the “Rock” under the Dome of the Rock as not having any holiness to those in Islam. Only later (after 750 C.E.) did Muslims begin to think that “Rock” had the prophet’s footprint and handprint that were placed there during the “Night Journey.” This teaching, however, was later derived, and only after the “Rock” started to become famous after the building of the Dome of the Rock in 692 C.E.

Omar, however, in this early period concentrated only on building what became the Al Aqsa Mosque in the extreme south of the Haram. And he went even further. Omar began to retrieve many ruined stones from the same area that Sophronius said was the site of the Jewish Temple (in the southeast quadrant of Jerusalem – over the Gihon Spring) in order to build the Al Aqsa Mosque itself. Remember, the Geniza document said that there were “foundation stones” still in the area where the Jews considered to be the place of their Temples. Thus, Omar imagined he was using stones from the original “Solomon’s Temple” to construct his Muslim shrine. This is one reason why it became common for those in Jerusalem to call the new Mosque as the remains of “Solomon’s Temple” (there was also another reason that I will provide a little later in this article). In fact, the procedure of moving stones from a holy place to make another place holy was a well-known and significant ritual called in Arabic “Barakah.” In Muslim theological thought, the use of the ritual called Barakah signified the transferenceof all the holiness and sanctification once associated with Solomon’s Temple to the new area of the Al Aqsa Mosque that was built about 600 feet to the north (in the south part of the Haram). The Encyclopedia of Religion 9 describes the Muslim theological principle called “Barakah.” The use of this procedure allowed the holiness of one site (in Arabic eyes) to be transferred to another place and the new place could be called after the former designation even though it was in a different site.”What is Barakah among the Arabs and in Islam? In the Arab world, the Semitic root brk seems originally to have meant both ‘blessing’ and ‘crouching.’ In the Arab mind, the idea seems to have developed of transferring this quality; barakah (noun; pl., barakat) [the quality or influence could be transferred] to such acts as kissing a hand or touching a holy object. See [the article] Touching. In popular Islam, traces of this nomadic notion of barakah [that is, a transference of holiness or title, or the influence of persons] remain in attitudes toward localities, historical personalities, and sacred objects.” (words in brackets and underlining mine).
Look at this Muslim principle closely. It is important in regard to our subject we are now discussing. This use of barakah is a major error adopted by the people of Jerusalem that helped even the local people to lose sight of the former spot of the Temple (or other sites). By practicing this ritualistic procedure, the Islamic people of Jerusalem began calling the Al Aqsa Mosque by the name “Solomon’s Temple.” Christians in time also adopted the same tactic. When the Europeans during the Crusades spoke of the Al Aqsa Mosque, they stated that it was indeed the remains of “Solomon’s Temple.” Christians in Crusader times used the same principle of barakah to transfer the influence and significance of a site (or a person) in the Holy Land to an area (or areas) in Europe that was found to be in proximity to the same holy person or persons.

In all likelihood, the early Arabs learned the practice from previous Christians (and perhaps Jews) who regularly used the ritual of “holy transference” (or, barakah) for many relics and holy sites [I will later give some examples of this transference.]. So, it was no surprise that Omar reckoned that the influence and holiness of Solomon’s Temple could in his day be transferred to his new Mosque at the southern end of the Haram esh-Sharif. In no way was this principle a proper one from a biblical point of view. Note that when the Tabernacle went from place to place in the Wilderness with the Shekinah (Spirit) of God leading it, the places where the Tabernacle had been formerly pitched retained no holiness with them. To further illustrate this, Jeremiah called the attention of the Jews of his day to the ruined state of Shiloh (where the Ark had remained for scores of years) and yet in Jeremiah’s time the area of Shiloh was ruined, desolate and bereft of all holiness. Jeremiah meant that Shiloh was deprived of all sanctification. 10

In spite of this biblical proscription, later people began to use this erroneous principle called barakah, and Christians from the fourth century, Muslims from the seventh, and Jews from the eleventh century adopted the procedure almost wholesale as a proper means of transferring the so-called “holiness” of one site to another – even to places hundreds of miles away. This allowed the influence and holiness of Solomon’s Temple to be transferred to another the place (using the well-known and well-used barakah principle). But there was also another reason why the Al Aqsa Mosque became known as “Solomon’s Temple” in early Arabic times (and even during the Crusade period the Christians themselves also referred to the Al Aqsa Mosque as “Solomon’s Temple”). Also within the Crusades, Christians reckoned the Dome of the Rock as being likened to King Herod’s northern extension of the Temple and it was called by Christians “The Temple of God.” Still, the whole of the area within the Haram esh-Sharif before the Persians and Jews destroyed the area in 614 C.E. was a major Christian region with two large and sumptuous churches built in the area. One of those churches that was built over the “oblong rock” now under the Dome of the Rock and it was called the Church of the Holy Wisdom. This was the “Rock” that Josephus stated was a prominent feature around which Fort Antonia [the Roman Praetorium] was built in Jerusalem.

Here is the second part I wanted to share with you about this stone beneath the feet of Yehovah that the 70 elders saw. Here is the link

On our tour, two other people who came down the riverbed to leave the Mountain said they stopped and lay under a waterfall and just let the water flow into their mouths. It was so refreshing.

Chapter 21

THERE CAN NEVER BE a representation of the House of God on earth without spring waters being within the enclosure. They provide the symbol of everlasting life and spiritual regeneration connected with the salvation of God and the righteousness associated with his heavenly household. Jeremiah the prophet noted this fact. Look at two verses in tandem to one another that show this teaching of the prophet Jeremiah. The verses are found in Jeremiah 17:12-13.

“A glorious high throne from the beginning is the place of our sanctuary [the Temple]. 0 Lord, the hope of Israel, all that forsake thee shall be ashamed, and they that depart from me shall be written in the earth, because they have forsaken the Lord, the fountain [water spring] of living waters.”

Notice that Jeremiah associates the ‘”glorious and high throne” of God with “the fountain of living waters.” The term ‘”living waters” within God’s Sanctuary was interpreted by early Jewish commentators to mean “spring waters” which are the only fit symbol of the purity found at God’s fountain within His heavenly dwelling. Josephus tells us that when Moses raised up the Tabernacle in the wilderness, spring waters were necessary to purify the Temple and the priests.

“Now when Moses had bestowed such honorary presents on the workmen [who built the Tabernacle], as it was fit they should receive, who had wrought so well, he offered sacrifices in the open court of the Tabernacle, as God commanded him; a bull, a ram, and a kid of the goats, for a sin-offering. Now I shall speak of what we do in our sacred offices in my discourse about sacrifices; and therein shall inform men in what case Moses bid us offer a whole burnt offering, and in what cases the law permits us to partake of them as of food. And when Moses had sprinkled Aaron’s vestments, himself, and his sons, with the blood of the beasts that were slain, and had purified them with spring waters and ointment, they became God’s priests. After this manner did he consecrate them and their garments for seven days together.”408

The use of spring waters was far more sanctified than rainwater or waters from cisterns. The cistern water collected from rainwater has to flow over areas of the earth that may be contaminated. Such was not considered fit to describe the living waters of God that came from the purity of God’s fountain of life. That is why Jeremiah contrasted cistern waters as inferior to living waters that emerge from underground springs. In Jeremiah 2: 13 he said:

“For my people have committed two evils; they have forsaken me the fountain of living waters, and hewed them out cisterns [for the catchment of rain water], broken cisterns, that can hold no water.”

While waters from cisterns could be used for drinking and other domestic functions (and for minor purification rites associated with normal ritual bathing), the most holy of purification ceremonies, such as those involving the Red Heifer, etc., required a higher level of purity. In those cases spring water had to be used.409 This was pure spring water and to a lesser degree from rivers fed by natural spring waters at their source.

408 Antiquities 111.8,6.
409 In Hebrew it is rendered living water or the water of life (Numbers 19: 17).

This is why the laver in Solomon’s Temple contained only spring water. We are confidently told in the Talmud by Jewish authorities that only water from the laver could be described as “holy.” Note what the Talmud relates (the capital letters represent the words of the Mishnah). “AND THE PRIEST SHALL TAKE HOLY WATER. There are no holy waters save those that are hallowed by being put in a vessel, and these are the waters of the !aver.”410 “AND THE PRIEST SHALL TAKE HOLY WATER. such that is, as was made holy in the laver.”411

Look at the Temple ritual to determine if a woman committed adultery. The Scriptures teach that the priest shall take water and prepare it for the judgment to be rendered by the priest. We read an explanation of this ceremony in Philo Judaeus who lived in the time of Jesus. Philo was thoroughly knowledgeable of the symbolic usages in the Temple of this holy rite and he gave a description that deserves full quotation. Notice Philo.

“Then the Law proceeds to say, the priest, having taken an earthen vessel, shall pour forth pure water, having drawn it from a fountain, and shall also bring a lump of clay from the ground of the Temple, which also I think has in it a symbolical reference to the search after truth; for the earthenware vessel is appropriate to the commission of adultery because it is easily broken, and death is the punishment appointed for adulterers; but the earth and the water are appropriate to the purging of the accusation, since the origin, and increase, and perfection of all things, take place by them: on which account it was very proper for the law-giver to set them both off by epithets, saying, that the water which the priest was to take must be PURE and LIVING WATER [spring water], since a blameless woman is pure as to her life, and deserves to live; and the earth too is to be taken, not from any chance spot, butfrom the SOIL of the GROUND of the TEMPLE, which must, of necessity, be most excellent, just as a modest woman is.” 412

Notice that the earth in the ritual had to come from the interior of the Temple. But the water had to have an equal holiness; it had

410 Midrash Rabbah, Numbers 9:14 Soncino ed., italics mine, capital letters are oriffinal text.

41 Ibid., Numbers 9:32, italics mine, capital letters are of original text. 412 Philo, Yonge’s translation, vol. III, p.318.

to be pure spring water. And since all references I have given so far (from scriptural and secular records) reveal the Temple had a natural spring within its courts (the Gihon Spring waters), it follows that the spring waters used in this holy ceremony were those from the Gihon Spring. Indeed, even later in Herod’s Temple with the ceremony of the “Water Drawing” (the joyous festivity in the Temple at the Feast of Tabernacles), the waters were obtained from the Siloam water system,413 and these waters came from the Gihon. This ritual was looked on as drawing “water out of the wells of salvation.”414

The illustration of the “water out of the wells of salvation” comes from the narrative of the child Immanuel in chapters 7 to 12 in the Book of Isaiah. That long prophecy of six chapters centers geographically “at the end of the conduit of the upper pool in the highway of the fuller’s field.”415 From there, Isaiah declares events of the prophecy concerning Immanuel. Further on, he tells how Israel “refuseth the waters of Shiloah that go softly.”416 Then Isaiah concludes the prophecy by showing how Immanuel “is become my salvation. Therefore with joy shall ye draw water out of the wells of salvation.”417 The “water” in the Immanuel prophecy is parallel with that of “Shiloah that go softly” which provided the geographical theme of the Immanuel prophecy of Isaiah.

These waters which represented “salvation” came from the Gihon Spring within the Temple. Such waters could aptly represent the waters of God from the throne area in the Temple. Indeed, we are told in the Mishnah that the symbolic waters of the “Water Drawing” were collected in a pitcher from Shiloah. They were typical of future waters that would issue forth from the threshold of the Temple mentioned in Ezekiel’s prophecy of Ezekiel 47:1.418

413 Sukkah 2la, 48a,b. 414 Isaiah 12:3.
415 Isaiah 7:3.
416 Isaiah 8:6.

417 Isaiah 12:23.

418 Middoth 2:6. This symbolic ritual is also described in detail in Sukkah 4:9. In Sukkah 4: 10 the Mishnah states that if the time for the rite occurs on the Sabbath, then priests could collect the needed water from the laver. Why from the laver? It was simply because even waters brought in great abundance into the laver, were waters from the Siloam water system with its origin at the Gihon.

Not All Rituals Required Spring Waters

Though any clear and clean water could be used for most ritual bathing, certain water sources were considered more pure than others. For example, rivers that had sources at underground springs (such as the Jordan River) were considered appropriate waters for purification rites not associated with major Temple ceremonies. Thus, John the Baptist and Jesus himself could baptize (baptism was a purification ritual) in the Jordan River. Such ceremonies were legal and proper for general and non-Temple purifications.

The rivers associated with the Garden of Eden were also appropriate for ritual purifications because the waters had mountain springs as their source. Even waters from rain and snow that filled the rivers were given greater holiness if the original sources of the rivers were natural springs. As a matter of fact, the Garden of Eden itself was looked upon by early biblical authorities as a type of Sanctuary of God from the rivers, notably the Gihon, that ran through it (a forerunner of the Tabernacle and the Temples).

Garden of Eden Like the Tabernacle and Temples

We have been observing in this book that the Scriptures demand a water source within the precincts of the Temple. This requirement is even reflected within the symbolism associated with the Garden of Eden. The Garden of Eden has much symbolic teaching to it. In two other books of mine,419 I provide abundant proof that biblical people and early Jewish authorities recognized the Garden in Eden, the Land of Eden, and the Land of Nod where Cain was banished, as represented symbolic features of the later Tabernacle in the wilderness as well as the Temples in Jerusalem.

The inner part of the Garden was understood as analogous to the Holy of Holies, the outer Garden answered to the Holy Place where the seven-branched Menorah was placed, while the altar where Cain and Abel presented their offerings was likened to the

419 Secrets of Golgotha, pages 1-8 and 384-390 and 101 Bible Secrets That Christians Do Not Know, pages 127-133.

Altar of Burnt Offering. Indeed, the rest of the Land of Eden as described in the Book of Genesis represented the outer courts of the Temple (including the Camp area surrounding the Sanctuaries). Even the Altar of Cain positioned before the “door” in the Land of Nod (outside the Land of Eden) symbolized the Altar of the Red Heifer located in the time of Jesus “outside the camp” on the Mount of Olives.

While all this is true, one thing must be borne in mind regarding this symbolism of the Garden of Eden with the Tabernacle and later Temples. That is, the four rivers, which had their sources in the mountains came together in the center part of the Garden of Eden to form one stream. This single stream then left the Garden and flowed into the Persian Gulf. That singular stream that emerged from the confluence of the four streams continued to be called the “Gihon.” Since this stream issued from the Garden of Eden, which then represented the Temple of God on earth in the pre-diluvian period, it became common to designate the spring waters coming from the interior of the Temple at Jerusalem (a type of the Garden of Eden) with the same identification. It was well known in Jewish traditional teachings that the Gihon Spring at Jerusalem was named after the Gihon River, the essential stream that finally left the Garden of Eden and debouched into the Persian Gulf.420

420 It was often taken for granted that in future Temples built in Jerusalem, waters coming from them would still be issuing from the Gihon Spring. In the account by Eliyahu ha-Cohen, Midrash Talpioth, 1903, p.203 and Emek ha- Melech, p.14 as recorded in Zev Vilnay’s Legends of Jerusalem, p.279 it states: “At that time a great stream shall flow forth from the Holy Temple, and its name is Gihon.” The early Arabs used to say: “He who comes to visit Jerusalem. shall bathe in the fount of Siloam, which springs from the Garden of Eden” (Vilnay. Ibid.). Another theory among the Jews was that the waters of the Gihon came from the Shiloh area in the north where the Tabernacle was first pitched. Thus the name Shiloah associated with the Gihon Spring in Isaiah 8:6 (they thought) referred to this traditional belief (see “Work on Geography.” in Wilkinson’s Jerusalem Pilgrimage 1099-1185, p.200.

The Christian traveller Theodoric in 1169 C.E. reported the same belief among Jews of the Shiloh origin of the waters at his time, though he himself did not believe it (/bid., p.295). Another belief of the Jews is that the waters of the Gihon originated at ‘Ayn ‘Eytiam south of Bethlehem (because the area was higher in elevation than Jerusalem). What is significant, however, is that both names “Gihon” and “Shiloah” (a variant of”Shiloh”) were used to denote waters that came forth from earlier Houses of God (that is, Eden and Shiloh) in order to show a spiritual identity and a consistent nomenclature. And so, the waters of the Gihon in Jerusalem were known to issue forth from the Temple precincts just as Aristeas and Tacitus stated that they did.This fact (with proof) is thoroughly explained in my books mentioned above. Thus, even with later Sanctuaries representing the Garden of Eden, we still observe a water source issuing from the Garden. That river later gave its name to the Gihon Spring that supplied spring water to the Tent area where David placed the Ark of the Covenant and over which Solomon built the original Temple. These similarities of names and other details were not coincidental. They were deliberately planned by biblical authorities to provide a consistent symbol for the fountain o f life issuing from God’s heavenly Temple which the Garden of Eden, the Tabernacle and the later Temples symbolically represented.

Not only did Aristeas and Tacitus state that the Gihon Spring was within the precincts of the Temple, but Jewish writers also echoed the theme. We find in Zev Vilnay’s Legends of Jerusalem:

“To the Jews of Jerusalem, the Fountain of Gihon is known as the Bath of Ishmael the High Priest. They relate that on the Day of Atonement, before entering the Holy of Holies, the high priest used to dip his body and purify himself in its waters.”421

Vilnay adds the comment: “The ritual bath of the high priest was in the Temple courtyard; see legend VIII:2.”422 Thus, the Gihon Spring was within the Temple.

There is more. Vilnay also records:

“It is said of the Fountain of Gihon: ‘It was the ritual bath of Rabbi Ishmael the high priest,’ who was among the ‘ten martyrs of Israel.’ And a big fountain fills it with water every day before the break of dawn; and the waters were sweet and pure from the moment they gushed forth from the spring till sunrise. But after the sun shined and flashed its rays over the surface, they became so salty that no man could drink from them.” 423

421 Vilnay, Legends ofJerusalem, p.277. 422 Ibid, see note on page 277.
423 Ibid

Again, this ritual bath of the high priest was understood to be located in the Temple courtyard. “In the Temple courtyard there was a bathhouse for the high priest. He used to immerse himself in water on the eve of the Day of Atonement.”424 The Gihon was from an early period known as the “Spring of the High Priest.” This is noted in Eusebius when he recorded an early eyewitness to the Temple named Philo. This Philo called that single spring in Jerusalem “the High Priest’s fountain and the canal that carries off the water, he [Philo] proceeds as follows: ‘A headlong stream [from the fountain] by channels underground, the pipes pour forth. “‘425 This Philo was certainly speaking of the Gihon Spring.

Gentiles Used Spring Waters and Its Eden Theme

Early histories of the Gentile nations surrounding Israel also had memories and mythic stories about the Garden of Eden theme. It was no wonder they customarily built their most famous shrines or Temples where natural springs issued from sacred spots. In truth, sometimes the existence of a spring itself gave Gentile holy places their sanctification. One could cite the Temple of Apollo at Delphi. This shrine was reckoned by Greeks as the very center of the universe (the navel of the earth) just as Jerusalem was the navel of the earth to biblical peoples. A prime feature at the Temple at Delphi was a spring that issued from the earth and from which the oracles associated with Delphi were derived.

Another important Gentile Temple and Citadel region (very much like Jerusalem) was the Acropolis in Athens. The region was ideally situated as a fortress combined with a Temple, and there was also a natural spring within the Temple precincts that afforded the rites of purification and other ceremonies to priests and people who attended the religious ceremonies.

The celebrated Temple of Zeus Ammon, one of the chief desert Temples in Egypt at the time of Alexander the Great, was built over a natural spring (there were many springs in this desert region). This natural spring provided an abundance of water in the

424 Vilnay, Legends ofJerusalem, p.88.
425 Eusebius, Preparation of the Gospel, Bk.IX, ch.36.

middle of the desert some 300 miles west by south of Memphis. This water turned the region into a beautiful oasis. It was the natural springs that gave sacredness to the area.

At the source of the Jordan River at the base of Mount Hermon was a natural spring (indeed, several springs) and the site was looked on by people of the Hellenistic age as a center of activity for all the gods in the Greek pantheon. The Greeks gave the name Panias to the region in honor of the god Pan and also all the gods. (It is now called Banias.) This area was in fact a most holy area to many nations of the Gentiles. The Book of Enoch states that this area was where the “Sons of God” came down from heaven to enter into an earthly environment before the Flood of Noah.426

The holiness of Mount Hermon is mentioned in the Bible. The Psalmist was convinced Mount Hermon, located above the natural springs, was itself a type of holy place. Its dew was equivalent with the dew of Mount Zion. The Psalmist said God’s blessings could come forth from either mountain.427 It was no accident that Jesus was transfigured before his disciples, as the New Testament records the Father himself appeared to witness the divine mission of Jesus at the summit of Mount Hermon. This divine epiphany was reckoned as providing authority for Jesus’ final teachings to the Jewish nation before his death on the tree of crucifixion.428

Keep in mind the sacredness associated with many of these natural springs among various peoples throughout all regions of the earth. It was common custom for many Temples of the Gentile nations to have springs in their interior or vicinity. Numerous examples could be given of the shrines of people from Egypt. India, China, Japan, all over Europe and into both of the American continents. People all over the world inherited the belief that sacred springs are like the water found in the Garden of Eden (the primeval Park of God). This is one of the reasons that the Temple of God at Jerusalem was recognized by many Gentiles peoples as representing the true Palace of God in heaven.

426 First Enoch 6: 1-6. 427 Psalm 133:3.
428 Matthew 17:1-9.

Tabernacle Had Water Springing from Within

Another matter involving water in the various Sanctuaries of God has puzzled biblical scholars over the centuries. That was the teaching of the apostle Paul that a “spiritual Rock” accompanied the Israelites at the Exodus that provided them with water to drink in the arid regions of the wilderness.429 Paul said that Rock was actually Christ. How did Christ as a Rock (or a Stone) accompany Israel to give them water to drink in the wilderness?

This is easy to explain, but few have understood what the apostle Paul actually meant. To realize what happened, note what Paul said in I Corinthians 10:1. He associated “the cloud” as a major part of his context. This cloud was the Shekinah (the Glory of God) that accompanied the Israelites in the wilderness. It hovered constantly over the holiest part of the Tabernacle.430 When God wanted the Israelites to journey to another area in the wilderness, the cloud (or pillar of fire by night) would lift and move in the direction God wanted them to journey. When the cloud (the Shekinah) stopped moving, that is when they again pitched the Tabernacle. The cloud (the Shekinah) accompanied Israel wherever they went or camped in the wilderness and water became associated with it.

While this is well understood, how did water come from a rock as the apostle Paul taught? Note that the prophet Ezekiel in vision also observed the Shekinah that went with Israel in the wilderness. He saw a great cloud and a fire that was transported by cherubim in a conveyance that had wheels within wheels.431 But within the main part of the cloud and the fire, Ezekiel saw a throne. This “throne of God” was located inside the cloud and the cherubim carried it. This throne was made from a solid piece of sapphire stone. On it sat the Glory of the Lord who appeared like a human suspended above the cherubim who carried the sapphire stone.432

429 I Corinthians I0: 1-4.
430 Exodus 13:21-22.
431 Ezekiel 1:4. Verse 4 describes the cloud and the fire, verses 5 to 25 describe the conveyance. 432

Ezekiel I:26-28.

Thus, Ezekiel described the Shekinah (the Glory of God) as associated with that precious stone and that the Shekinah was in this cloud (or fire). The cherubim conveyed the entire apparatus. 433 Recall that the Shekinah of Ezekiel was the same spiritual epiphany that accompanied Israel in the wilderness for forty years. The apostle Paul called special reference to the “‘Rock” (that is, that “Sapphire Stone”) in this cloud that went with Israel. He said that Rock (or Stone) represented Christ because Christ was sitting on that divine throne made out of the Sapphire Stone.434

Now, what about the water that Israel was able to drink in the wilderness? Paul tells us the water came forth from that Rock (that Stone which was a solid piece of sapphire stone in the shape of a throne on which the Glory of God sat). It was this water emerging from that stone which Israel was given to drink in the wilderness.435 This was the water that came forth from the “Rock” or “Stone” above the cherubim in the Holy of Holies. The stream from this Stone went out of the Tabernacle eastward to give the Israelites water to drink. Paul simply identified the one sitting on that Stone in the cloud as Christ some fourteen centuries before his birth in Bethlehem.

What Paul meant was that water came forth from the Stone (throne) for almost the whole forty years of the Exodus to give Israel water to drink and to use. But when Israel got to Kadesh at the border of the Land of Canaan, water stopped coming from that Stone. This is when God told Moses to speak unto another rock to produce a new water source for the Israelites while in Kadesh.436 Once they left Kadesh the Israelites found water in streams and in wells, and no longer needed a miraculous water source.437

The point should be made that water (miraculous water) was associated with God’s symbolic throne in the Tabernacle while the Israelites were in the wilderness. This shows how spring waters

433 Ezekiel I0: 1.
434 Ezekiel 1:26; I Corinthians IO: 1. 435 I Corinthians 10:4.
436 Numbers 20: 1-13.
437 Numbers 21: 12-18.

were connected with God’s Temples. The waters must spring up within the Temples to symbolize the “fountain of life” that is associated with God’s dwelling in heaven.

Remember, in Ezekiel’s ideal Temple which God revealed to him in vision, Ezekiel saw water (spring waters) ushering forth from the Holy Place that went out the right side of the Altar of Burnt Offering and into the Dead Sea to make those acrid waters clean and fresh.438 On the sides of this river that came forth from that Holy Place were trees that gave life-giving attributes to all who eat from them.439 This is similar to what the Book of Revelation said about waters that will issue from the throne of God and the Lamb in the New Jerusalem. “And he showed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb.”440

So, emerging from the Tabernacle of the Exodus there was water coming from within the Sanctuary when Israel was in the wilderness. Later, whenever the Israelites pitched the Tabernacle. it was common to position it at a water source. In Gilgal, the first site of the Tabernacle in the Holy Land, there were the springs from Jericho that supplied an abundance of water. When the Tabernacle was at Shiloh (from the times of Joshua to Samuel), there was a natural spring that supplied water to the Temple, the city and the surrounding area.

The only departure from the rule that spring waters be associated with God’s House was when Israel went into a time of rebellion to God once the Ark of the Covenant was taken from Shiloh by the Philistines. For a period of 20 years the Ark was situated at the House of Abinadab, and for about another I00 years it was located at an adjacent site. During that 120 years, Israel was accustomed to raise up altars (illegally) in “high places” throughout the country.441 Such high places were condemned by the prophets.442

438 Ezekiel 47:1-12. 439 Ezekiel 47:12.
440 Revelation 22: I.
441 I Kings 3:1-2.
442 I Kings 3:3 passim.

There were, of course, no natural springs in those “high places.” When the Tabernacle was pitched at Nob in the summit area of the Mount of Olives,443 it was not a proper site for a functioning “House of God” to meet the qualifications for holiness that Moses and the prophets demanded. David recognized the inferior status of such a Tabernacle at Nob because it did not contain the Ark of the Covenant, nor did it have spring waters. David thought nothing about eating the shewbread from such a place.444 Had such a site been fully sanctified, however, that act would have consigned David to the death penalty.445 Soon after this action by David at Nob, we find the Tabernacle was taken down and pitched at a more suitable location at the great high place of Gibeon, because proper spring waters were at that site.446 It is essential to keep in mind the need for spring waters to be part of a fully developed House of God.

A significant point to realize is, however, when David selected Jerusalem as the place for the Ark of the Covenant (which site he called the “House of the Lord” – the place of “his [God’s] habitation”), he placed the Ark directly over the Gihon Spring. And, from what I have shown so far, the Gihon was also within the area of the Temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel and Herod and was called the “fountain of Israel.” Recall that Aristeas (just prior to Simon the Hasmonean) said there was an abundant natural spring gushing up within the Temple, and Tacitus confirmed this fact. This was the Gihon Spring. This means that throughout the history of the Tabernacle or Temples (whether in Old or New Testaments), the theme is consistent and constant. A water spring had to be intimately associated with all legal Sanctuaries.

(Note; even the Stone of Melchizedek which we went to visit when we first arrived in Jerusalem was also above the Gihon Spring.)

Joseph Dumond beside the Standing Stone of Melchizedek. This is believed to be ground zero for the Temples.

This is believed to be some sort of setup to host the carcasses to be cut up. Still not 100% sure.

This is the newly found Geneza which had intact pots.

This is believed to be the place where the sacrifices were offered.

This is an oil press.

The Standing Stone.

Randy Cates beside the Standing Stone of Melchizedek.

The current construction site around the Melchizedek Offering site.

Myself and Rebbac Biderman going down to the Melchizedek Offering site. The Gihon Spring is dead ahead of me to the left about 20 meters away.

It is now time to look closely at the geography of early Jerusalem to determine the exact site of the early Temples in the city. We need to focus attention on the period before Simon the Hasmonean. When we do, we will witness a Jerusalem very different from that

443 See Isaiah I0:32 for the position of Nob on the Mount of Olives. 444 I Samuel 21 :6.
445 See Leviticus 24:5-23.
446 I Kings 3:4; I Chronicles 16:39; Jeremiah 41: 12.

of Herod and Jesus’ day. We will discover that Jerusalem was located almost entirely on the southeast ridge, now called the “Lower City.” This is where the Citadel (or the Akra) and the original Temples were located. We will see that the early Temples were situated directly above the Gihon Spring and NOT a third of a mile north at the Dome of the Rock.


I shared all of this to show you the importance of what this Sapphire stone represents. I believe it sat beneath the Ark of Yehovah, and from it wept water.


April 11, 2022.

I have a few foot notes to add here. I want to keep this all in one place for reference.

It was a thought of mine and just a thought that the maybe, just maybe the Ten Commandments were made of this same Sapphire blue we saw on the Mountain.

Then I was sent this week the following note.

Shabbat Shalom Brother Joe,

You bring up a fascinating topic and provided two incredible pictures in this week’s newsletter.  I was unaware of those blue stones at the top of Mt. Sinai but, I’m not shocked either.

I want to share some additional “sapphire connections” that I’m sure you’re not familiar with or else you would have mentioned them.  Also, I’m going to share with you another story that you would have no idea of knowing unless you personally know the people involved.

I have a friend who is an archaeologist that led nine expeditions looking for Noah’s Ark in the mountains of Ararat.  Astronaunt Jim Irwin went with him on a couple of occasions.  He had some state of the art equipment at the time, including ground penetrating radar, and other gadgets.  When they first found the Dead Sea Scrolls, he was hired (by some form of Israeli government) to search the area at Qumran.  He did find additional clay pots with scrolls.  I only say this info to point out that he is well respected and sought after.

About 30 years ago, they (some form of government connected to the Temple) paid for his travel to Jerusalem to visit with him about an important project.  They wouldn’t discuss anything over the phone.  They believed he might have the ability, with his equipment and talents, to locate something they were looking for.  When he met with them, he learned they were specifically looking for sapphire stone fragments and wanted to know if his equipment could detect this.  His answer was ‘no’ because his equipment was designed to detect derivatives of metal, not stone.  At first, he didn’t tell them a definite ‘no’ because he saw their strong desire and desperation to locate sapphire fragments; what he did was ask them to show them the location because he was trying to learn more.  They took him to a big room with a dirt floor (I think I have this part of the story correct but I can check with him to make sure).  They said very few people had been there and very few people knew about this place.  He asked them if the sapphire fragments were from Biblical antiquity but they would not answer specifically other than ‘yes, they are connected with Mt. Sinai”.  In much disappointment, he eventually told them his equipment could not detect precious stones like sapphire unless the stones happened to be mounted in gold like jewelry because his equipment only detected metal.  They quickly released him and thanked him for his time.  They told him that there is no possibility that the sapphire fragments they were looking for ever existed with metal.  My friend was disappointed that he wasn’t able to help and learn what all of this was about.  It puzzled him for years not knowing what they were looking for.  When he told me this story, it triggered something I had read and I immediately felt I knew the connection.  I told him I would return with something for him to read.  I didn’t want to influence his reaction or speculation.  I brought him a copy of the Book of Jasher and asked him to read the account of God giving Moses the Ten Commandments at the top of Mt. Sinai.  Jasher 82:10-11 says “And Yehovah wrote the Ten Devarim which He had commanded the children of Israel upon two sapphire stones, which He gave to Moses to command the children of Israel.  And at the end of forty days and forty nights, when Yehovah had finished speaking to Moses on Mt. Sinai, then Yehovah gave to Moses the sapphire stones, written with the finger of Elohim.”  My friend got the biggest smile and with much excitement said, “that’s it, that’s what they were looking for!”

The original set of Ten Commandments were written with the finger of God on two tablets of sapphire.  These were the tablets that Moses broke at the base of Sinai upon seeing the golden calf.  Is it possible that some of these sapphire fragments made it to Jerusalem and they were looking for them?  Sure, it is!

I don’t have to convince you how that the color blue is found throughout scripture and how it is highly regarded in Jewish culture.  You mentioned this in this latest newsletter about the throne of Elohim and the throne room floor.  The tzitzits have a blue thread running through them and that by looking at them, they are to remind us of Elohim’s commandments.  Why blue and why would they remind us of His commandments?  Because the original commandments were on tablets of blue sapphire!

Here’s another “sapphire connection”.  You can read the 77th chapter of Jasher to find out that there is a sapphire stick, with the name “Yehovah Elohim Tsavaot” inscribed on it, that God used during creation.  When Adam was forced from the Garden, the stick stayed with Elohim.  It came down through Noah, Shem, Shem’s descendants, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and finally Joseph.  When Joseph died, the nobles of Egypt went into the house of Joseph and it ended up into the hands of Reuel (aka Jethro, Moses’ father-in-law).  This sapphire stick is what became the staff of Moses!  This is the staff that was involved in basically every miracle that Israel witnessed.  Now, I have another thought.  When God told Moses to speak to the rock (for water), Moses in his anger did not speak to the rock but struck it.  What would he strike it with?  The sapphire stick?  Probably.  This would likely have broken his staff into pieces.  I don’t recall his staff ever mentioned again after this story but I will have to go back and read again with this in mind.  Could the sapphire fragments my friend was asked to find be the two original tablets and the staff of Moses?  You decide.

Coincidentally, this same friend told me back in 2007 about Jabal al Lawz, the ‘real’ Mt. Sinai.  He showed me two pieces of blackened rock that came from the top of Sinai.  I held them in my hands.  One was blackened all the way around on the surface.  The other had been busted open which showed a blackened surface but lighter grey color under the blackened surface.  He acquired them back in the 1980’s from a friend who visited the site.  He begged his friend to bring him some blackened rock samples from on top of Sinai.  When he received them, he had a university geology department analyse them; he never told them where the rocks were from.  I read their report and the #1 opinion of how the surface was blackened was intense heat.  Back in 2019, when I showed him the passages in Jasher, I was able to hold these blackened stones again and read the university report once again.

Anyhow, I hope you enjoyed reading this as I felt it was the right time to share this with you.

Shabbat Shalom,

After that I began to read about how to spot sapphires using different light sources. I share this in the hopes someone can add to this information.

Focus on Gemstone Fluorescence: Looking for the Light


Most of us know about fluorescence in gemstones, but how many use it as part of their gemmological testing routine? Here, Gem-A gemmology tutor Lily Faber, FGA DGA EG, delves deeper into fluorescence and explains why it can be both enlightening and enjoyable for gemmologists.

Luminescence in Gemmology

When we use the term luminescence in gemmology, it generally refers to the term photoluminescence, which is the emission of a cold, visible light when a gem material (or general substance) is excited by light of a shorter wavelength. Two examples are fluorescence and phosphorescence.

Fluorescence occurs when a gem material is illuminated by radiation of shorter wavelengths with higher energy.

A bag of cubic zirconia under LWUV with areas of blue fluorescence that highlights the presence of diamonds. 

The visible light emitted stops when the source of illumination is turned off. Phosphorescence, on the other hand, is a visible light that is emitted by a gem material after the original source of exciting radiation has been switched off.


A famous example of a gemstone that strongly phosphoresces is the blue Hope Diamond, which glows a bright red for several minutes after being excited by short wave UV light. Both fluorescence and phosphorescence can have varying strengths from very strong to weak. If a material does not either fluoresce or phosphoresce, it is considered inert.

Quartz under LWUV showing oil inclusions.

The History of Gemstone Fluorescence

Fluorescence has been observed for years, but it was not until Sir George Stokes extensively documented this effect in relation to gemmology that it officially became part of the scientific lexicon. In 1852, Sir George coined the word fluorescence, named after fluorspar, more commonly known as fluorite, which is a highly fluorescent material.

The ‘Stokes Law of Fluorescence’ or ‘Stokes Shift’ states that the fluorescent emission of light will always be that of a longer wavelength than the excitation source, i.e. the light emitted is of a lower energy than its excitation source.

Why Use Fluorescence to Test Gemstones?

Fluorescence can be a helpful tool when used correctly. Some gemstones have a characteristic or, very rarely, a diagnostic reaction to UV light. One gemstone that notably both fluoresces and phosphoresces is a diamond, which typically fluoresces blue in longwave UV light and then phosphoresces yellow.

This is a diagnostic result for a colourless to yellow diamond in the Cape series (Type Ia), but please be aware that fluorescence is rarely diagnostic as reactions may vary wildly within the same species or variety of gemstone.

READ MORE: The Fascinating History of Platinum

Fluorescence can indicate or confirm the identity of a stone. For example, citrine quartz is inert to fluorescence due to the presence of iron, which eliminates fluorescence. If you are testing a yellow stone that may potentially be a citrine, and it fluoresces orangey-yellow under LWUV and red under SWUV, it cannot be a citrine and is more likely to be a scapolite.

Scapolite from Ontario under LWUV.

Other reasons to use fluorescence? It is quick and normally takes less than one minute to observe reactions. You can test gemstones that are loose, set, rough or fashioned, and you can test either single gemstones or multiple gems at the same time. Finally, it is entertaining!

How Does Fluorescence Occur in Gemstones?

Ultraviolet light (UV) is the most commonly used excitation source. We cannot see UV light as it sits just below the visible light spectrum (400nm- 700nm) at 10-400nm. UV light enables us to see fluorescence because a gem material will absorb this radiation source and then emit light that is lower in energy and therefore visible to the eye. But what is actually happening within the gemstone itself to elicit such a colourful reaction?

It has to do with electrons. When electrons are excited by a source of radiation, they jump to a higher energy level around the nucleus of the atom. The excited electron remains in this excited state for a short period of time until it falls back to its original ground state. As the electron returns to its ground state, it emits energy either as heat or as visible light (fluorescence).

A: Natural spinel, red paste, synthetic verneuil ruby, almandine garnet and two natural rubies.
B: The same stones under LWUV. C: The results under SWUV.

If you are wondering if all minerals fluoresce, the answer is no. Only 15% of all known mineral species exhibit this effect, the causes of which can be very complex. One of the more better-known and documented causes is the presence of activator elements that can be excited by higher energy wavelengths.

Some activators include chromium (Cr), uranium (U), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), titanium (Ti) and rare earth elements (REE). Some elements are considered to be the complete opposite, however, and when present they eliminate or quench fluorescence, causing a gemstone to be inert. Common quenchers include iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni).

Kunzite under SWUV.

Using UV Light to Test Gemstones

The types of UV light used in testing are long wave (LWUV) with a principle wavelength of 365nm, and short wave (SWUV) with a principle wavelength of 254nm. Different testing equipment ranges from UV keyrings (typically LWUV) to a UV viewing cabinet. When using UV light to test gemstones, it is important to remember that any exposure to UV light can damage your eyes, but particularly use caution when using SWUV as it is more dangerous than LWUV. Always wear protective UV goggles or ensure that your UV cabinet is installed with an eyepiece that filters out UV light.

To properly use a UV keyring, take the following steps:

  • Never look directly into the light
  • Turn off surrounding lights so you are in a dark environment.
  • Place the gemstone table-down if facetted. If table up, the gemstone may reflect the UV light into your eyes and creating confusing, conflicting or inconclusive results.
  • Hold the keyring approximately two inches away from the stone and, if testing multiple gems, always be consistent with the distance at which you hold the light.
  • Record whether the stone is inert or fluorescing, and the strength of the reaction.

Sometimes you may see some dull purple or red light in the gemstone or on a few facet edges. This means that the gemstone is reflecting the purple UV light and is not itself a fluorescent reaction.

A: Synthetic verneuil sapphire, scapolite, natural sapphire, topaz and citrine. B: Under LWUV. C: Under SWUV 

Understanding Fluorescence Results

While fluorescence is not a diagnostic test, and results can vary dramatically even within the same gemstone species (variable emerald results, for example), it can be a useful indication of what a gemstone is. When testing diamonds and colourless, transparent simulants, keep the below chart in mind.

When testing red to pink gemstones,do keep in mind that natural rubies in particular may have variable fluorescence based on their iron content. If iron is present, the ruby will have minimal to no fluorescence. Synthetic rubies tend to have much stronger fluorescent reactions.

When testing green gemstones, fluorescence can be tricky to use for identification purposes. However, it may be useful in terms of recognising the presence of fillers in emeralds or green jadeite jade, for example.

Some resin fillers fluoresce a whitish colour under LWUV and if this reaction is seen in either of the aforementioned stones, it may be an indication that filler is present, especially if the fluorescence is concentrated in seams or certain areas rather than being evenly distributed across the stone.

Note the natural emerald fluorescing a whitish colour (second from right), hinting that a resin filler may have been used. Further testing will be needed to confirm this possibility.

Left to Right: synthetic flux emerald, synthetic hydrothermal emerald, natural emerald, chrome diopside.

Additionally, natural emeralds, if they do fluoresce, will have a red to inert reaction under LWUV, and a weaker inert or green reaction under SWUV. Synthetic emeralds may fluoresce red or, in the case of the synthetic hydrothermal emerald, they may be inert if doped with iron to imitate a natural inert reaction.

Untreated green jadeite does not fluoresce, so any other reaction should be regarded with suspicion and further testing will be needed. When testing yellow gemstones the bottom chart may prove useful.

Conclusion – Fluorescence in Gemstones

As is evident, fluorescence can be a helpful tool when testing gemstones, though not always diagnostic. It is a quick test that is one of the more exciting ones in the world of gemmology. ■

All images courtesy of Lily Faber and Gem-A gemmology tutor, Pat Daly.




Diamond (natural) Strongest reaction, most common is blue, but can be yellow and green Similar colours to LWUV but it is a weaker reaction
Diamond (synthetic) Similar colours to SWUV but it is a weaker reaction Strongest reaction, mainly fluoresce orange to yellow
Cubic zirconia Weak to inert (usually inert) but same colours as SWUV, yellowish-orange. Moderate to strong yellowish-orange (apricot), variable
Synthetic moissanite Variable reactions Variable reactions
Synthetic spinel Inert Bright, chalky white or blue/green
Paste Inert Variable, may have chalky white surface





Ruby (natural) Variable, strong red to inert Same as LWUV but weaker to inert reaction
Ruby (synthetic) Bright red, tends to be stronger than natural ruby Red, weaker than LWUV but still brighter than natural ruby
Red spinel Red Red, but weaker than LWUV
Spodumene, var. Kunzite Orange or violet Weaker violet, whitish or inert
Almandine garnet (Iron is present, this stone never fluoresces) Inert Inert
Red glass/paste Inert Variable, may have chalky white surface





Quartz, variety cirtrine Inert Inert
Yellow sapphire (natural) Apricot orange to inert Inert
Yellow sapphite (synthetic) Weak red to inert Inert
Yellow scapolite Yellowish Reddish
Yellow topaz Yellowish Whitish

This article originally appeared in Gems&Jewellery Summer 2018/ Volume 27/ No.2 


Gem Identification, Gemstones

What Gemstones Show Fluorescence Under UV Light?

What would happen if you put rocks or gemstones under a blacklight? Would they fluoresce? If you’ve been in a room lit by a blacklight, you might recall seeing things like paper, plastic, and teeth appear to glow. Banana spots, olive oil, certain flowers, and scorpions all fluoresce under UV light as well. What gemstones show fluorescence under UV light?

Only 15% of all mineral species fluoresce, and not every specimen that can fluoresce does so. This means that only some gemstones that contain these minerals show fluorescence under UV light. Different minerals can make them fluoresce in a stunning array of colors. Some emeralds can fluoresce purple! Let’s take a look at which gemstones fluoresce and what it means.

Glowing Gems in Legend and History

Throughout history, people have told stories about various kinds of glowing gems. While many of these stories were exaggerations to engage audiences, there’s sometimes a scientific link to them. Some of the glowing gems in legend do have fluorescent properties.

India – Vishnu’s Light

India was the earliest country to recognize fine gemstones, which hold symbolic value in Hindu texts. The Vishnu Purana states that Vishnu, in his avatar form as Shesha, the multi-headed snake, has a jewel on each head that gives off light.

The Hindu classic Mahabharata describes the raja Babruvahana’s palace as dazzling; it contains precious stones that “shine like lamps.”

Rubies, the most revered gem in ancient India, have both luminescence and fluorescence. Under UV light, they can appear to glow radiantly. Another important Hindu gem, Diamonds, can phosphoresce, and there is evidence the Indian king Bhoja (r. 1010–1055) knew about this.

Greece and Rome – Gems That Brighten the Night

The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that The temple of Heracles at Tyre had a column made of green gems that shined brightly at night. (Geologist Stanley Hobart Ball guesses that the priests there probably put a candle inside the glowing column to mislead the gullible.)

The Roman natural philosopher, Pliny the Elder, describes a gem called the chrysolampis, or ‘golden gleam,’ as a pale gold that turns fiery by night.

Pliny also writes about the gem lychnis. An ancient statue of the Syrian goddess Atargatis had the gem on her forehead, which is said to have shone at night like a bright fire. According to Pliny, the gem is called lychnis(Greek for lamp; light) because the light of a lamp enhances the gem’s glow, revealing its beautiful hues.

It could be that some of these stories were inspired by fluorite. The term “fluorescence” derives from “fluorite,” specimens of which can be highly fluorescent. Many fluorite specimens have a strong enough fluorescence that you could hold them in the sunlight, then move them into the shade and notice a color change.

Egypt – Luminescent Mines

The forbidden island of Ophiodes (also called Topazios) contained King Ptolemy II Philadelphus’s famous mine. Miners extracted what they called “Topazion”, which were beautiful green gemstones. According to Greek historians Strabo and Diodorus Siculus, the snakes on the island made mining dangerous.

The gems blended in with their surroundings in the day, but at night, the miners could see its illuminating sparkle. They would mark the locations of the gems, and then extract them the following day.

The “Topzaion” gems that the miners extracted were actually peridot. Mines on this island (now called Zabargad Island) still contain many igneous rocks and gems, including peridot. Olivine is not luminescent, although true Topaz is.

It’s likely that Egyptian merchants told astounding stories like this to enhance the value of their gems. This helped peridot gain recognition since people hadn’t seen it before. Up until the 18th century, people confused topaz and peridot.

If only the Egyptian miners could set foot in the Sterling Hill Mine today, which actually contains fluorescent rocks!

The Fluorescent Mine

In New Jersey, a 2,670 feet deep mine contains the world’s largest collection of fluorescent rocks. Visitors follow a rainbow tunnel down into the mine, the walls of which glow in vivid reds, greens, blues, and yellows. At the end of the tunnel, they enter the museum, which contains the world’s largest collection of fluorescent rocks.

A lighting sequence shows you how the different rocks look under a blacklight, then a long-wave ultraviolet light, and under both. After, the light turns off, allowing you to see the “afterglow,” or phosphorescence, of some of the rocks.

In the legend, Egyptian miners used the glow from gems to find and extract them. Geologists who work at the museum actually use a similar mining technique! To find rocks to add to the collection, they use UV light to find rocks that glow under the light and then extract them.

What Causes Glowing Gemstones?

If you’ve ever seen a gem appear to glow, you’ve witnessed gemstone luminescence. This is a phenomenon that occurs when electrons in certain atoms of a crystallized mineral absorb energy and release it. If the energy source is light, it’s called photoluminescence, and if the energy source is heated, it’s called thermoluminescence.

Ruby and topaz are two of the most photoluminescent gemstones. They appear to glow subtly in indoor or outdoor lighting. Some of the glow you’re seeing is actually photons emitted from electrons in the gem – so yes, they do “glow!”

Calcite is an example of a thermoluminescent mineral. It’s white, but you put it on a hot plate, it glows blue. Spodumene is another example of a thermoluminescent mineral.

Luminescence is probably the phenomenon that people in the past witnessed. Without understanding the cause, it may have seemed magical. It’s no wonder luminescent gems inspired tales and legends of glowing gems.


Gemstone Fluorescence is a form of gemstone luminescence. It occurs when a source of radiation (i.e. UV light) excites electrons in the gemstone, causing them to jump to a higher energy level. The electron stays in this state for a short period of time and then returns to its ground state.

As it returns to its ground state, the electron releases energy, either as heat or as light. Fluorescence is the emission of light. Unlike some other forms of luminescence, fluorescence causes an immediate release of energy.

Rubies are particularly stunning under UV lights. They’re one of the few gemstones that have both daylight luminescence and fluorescence.

Some rubies even exhibit visible fluoresce in daylight, from the sun’s UV rays. Fluorescence can make a ruby’s color even more stunning, increasing its value.


When a gemstone or mineral continues to glow after you take away the light source, this is called phosphorescence. The electrons in the mineral stored the energy from the UV light and then re-emit the light on a delayed basis. This delay is due to the electrons returning to their ground state more slowly.

If you ever had glow-in-the-dark toys, stickers, or clothes, you witnessed phosphorescence.

An example of a phosphorescent gemstone is the blue Hope Diamond. The Hope Diamond phosphoresces a strong red color for several seconds after exposure to a short-wave UV light. Other type IIb diamonds, which only make up 0.1% of all natural diamonds, also phosphoresce.

Fun fact: Rose’s “The Heart of the Ocean” necklace in The Titanic is based on the Hope Diamond.


Gemstone triboluminescence refers to the phenomenon where gems emit light when they are struck, scratched, crushed, or rubbed. It’s not fully understood yet, but it’s most likely that mechanical energy causes the separation and unification of static electrical charges.

Robert Boyle (1627-1691) wrote about his experiments at night with a diamond. He discovered that some diamonds, when rubbed against hard substances (or even against soft ones like cloth) produce a spark.

Other accounts of diamonds producing light in the dark exist before the official discoveries of triboluminescence. It makes you wonder how many people in ancient times ever saw their gemstone produce a spark at night, and then believed it to hold some mysterious power.

What Gemstones Show Fluorescence Under UV Light?

Examples of gemstones that can show fluorescence are topaz, opals, rubies, diamonds, citrine, and various colored sapphires. Not every one of these gemstones will fluoresce. Fluorescence is typically a rare occurrence in most kinds of gemstones.

What Causes Fluorescence in Gemstones?

Only 15% of minerals fluoresce, and in order for a gemstone to fluoresce, it must contain some of these minerals. Usually, these minerals must have impurities, known as “activators,” in order to fluoresce. Some fluorescent minerals fluoresce reliably, while others are unpredictable.

Examples of activator elements are Chromium, Titanium, Yttrium, manganese, and rare earth elements (REE). The types of metal ions that cause gems to fluoresce are often the same types of metals linked to magnetic susceptibility.

In addition to activators, there are “quenchers.” These are impurities that prevent fluorescence if they’re present above trace amounts. Mixtures with iron or Nickel, for example, can prevent fluorescent minerals from glowing. On the flip side, if there are too many activators, they can prevent minerals from fluorescing.

It’s due to varying concentrations of activator and quencher elements that even fluorescent gemstones don’t all fluoresce the same. A ruby with a higher concentration of Iron, for example, will have a weaker fluorescence than one with less Iron.

Testing Gemstones with UV Light

When it comes to identification and evaluation, what does fluorescence mean in gemstones? Testing gemstones with UV light can help you understand more about the gem.

Testing gemstones with UV light can help you determine what it is, if it’s natural or lab-grown, if it contains synthetic filler, if it’s been heat-treated, or what region it came from. Because there’s so much variability, these tests alone are never definitive when it comes to identifying gems.

Some of the most valuable natural rubies fluoresce brightly, but others do not, due to their Iron levels. Synthetic rubies aren’t worth as much as natural ones, but they generally have strong fluorescence. This is something that makes it difficult to determine test results for red and pink gemstones.

While testing for fluorescence doesn’t work well for green gemstones, it can help you determine if a green gem such as an emerald contains fillers. This is because the filler will often fluoresce whereas the emerald would not.

Detecting Fillers

A filler is an artificial resin used to cover up inclusions. Since emeralds are more prone to inclusions, it’s more likely that someone would get them filled with a resin to make them look more perfect. Sellers are obligated to disclose any use of fillers.

Fillers typically fluoresce a whitish color. A good indication that a gemstone contains a filler is if there’s a white fluorescent patch in a particular part of the gemstone rather than evenly throughout.

Natural emeralds can fluoresce, but they would have a red to inert reaction under long-wave UV, and a weaker inert or green reaction under short-wave UV. In either case, it’s a different color than the fluorescence of the filler. Synthetic emeralds may also fluoresce red, but they wouldn’t have the same change under the two types of UV light.

An Involved Process

Testing gemstones under UV light can be very helpful, but the degree of helpfulness depends on the type of gemstone and what you wish to determine.

There are detailed charts online that describe what each type of gemstone may look like under SWUV lights and LWUV lights. These charts reveal how many different types of colors gemstones may exhibit fluorescence. Even if some gemstones can possess strong fluorescence, there may be others that don’t fluoresce at all.

Is Fluorescence Good or Bad in Jewelry?

In many cases, fluorescence in gemstones can heighten the beauty of their color and add to the gemstone meanings. Rubies and sapphires are good examples.

In gems such as diamonds, fluorescence can either improve or reduce the quality. A light blue haze, for example, can improve the diamond’s clarity. Too much fluorescence can make the diamond appear hazy. Whether or not fluorescence can improve a gemstone or not depends on the types of minerals, activators, and their amounts.

The Takeaway

Knowing what gemstones show fluorescence under UV light may or may not influence what kind of gemstone jewelry you buy.

Whatever you decide, fluorescent gemstones will always be a subject of intrigue. There are many specific occurrences that must occur in the earth to create this phenomenon. Fluorescent gemstones are a wonder of nature.

For more information on gemstones, including facts and comparisons, check out our blog.

It is my belief at this time that by using a certain light source which works on the stone at the top of the mountain that we can use the same source and locate the original Ten Commandments at the bottom of the Mountain of Sinai where Moses broke the commandments.

We know where his altar is and where the first petroglyph is and the path or walk towards the Golden Calf altar is. We could search this by night using this light source to find the shards. I am of course speculating not know for sure if it would work.

But just imagine what would happen if we found the original commandments. WOW!!!


  1. Aurelio Caldarelli

    I believe it was Cornuke and Halbrook who first went to the real Mount Sinai, idk, maybe 20 years ago. The area was fenced off by Saudi gov and they had to sneak in to get a few pictures. Looks like things have changed in 20 years. How many visas did you have to get in order to enter these countries? I’m just curious 🤨.

  2. Victoria Koorzen

    I have often wondered how David, a righteous man, would dare to eat the showbread of the Temple – thanks for the answer!

  3. Victoria

    The water in the desert – tell me more, please! I googled it, and find only 2 references: Mara and the rock at Horeb. Where do we learn that water flowed from the Tabernacle?
    As an aside, while searching the above, this came up:
    Concerning water: each human requires approximately a half-gallon of water per day, so 3.5 million people (Toth’s number) would require 1.75 million gallons of water each day. Since 1 ton of water is about 264 gallons, dividing 1.75 million by 264 yields approximately 6,630 tons of water per day for the Israelites.07 May 2018 › ex…
    Exodus numbers do not add up – Daily Mining Gazette”
    They obviously don’t know Yehovah and His ways.

  4. Ella H Morgan

    Whew! Lots of good info.

  5. Sombra

    I am so thankful to study along with you Joe.